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Table 1 Mean observable characteristics of welfare recipients, 1990 – 1999

From: Never give up? The persistence of welfare participation in Sweden

  Swedish-born Foreign-born
Total Welfare recipients No welfare recipients Total Welfare recipients No welfare recipients
Age 39.9 35.3 40.0 40.1 36.6 40.5
Age 18–30 (%) 19.1 35.0 18.6 15.6 24.7 14.5
Age 31–40 (%) 31.5 35.1 31.4 35.2 42.9 34.2
Age 41–59 (%) 49.4 29.9 50.0 49.2 32.4 51.2
Educational level       
Primary (%) 22.8 44.1 22.1 37.2 53.9 35.2
Secondary (%) 51.2 51.8 51.2 42.6 36.6 43.3
Post secondary (%) 25.9 4.1 26.7 20.2 9.4 21.5
Children aged less than 4 (%) 16.7 17.2 16.7 17.4 24.7 16.5
Cohabitant (%) 59.8 21.2 61.2 61.4 43.0 63.6
City region (%) 24.5 30.2 24.3 36.6 45.4 35.6
Unemployed (%) 13.5 40.9 12.5 20.9 37.4 18.9
Regional rate of welfare participation 4.9 5.4 4.8 5.6 5.9 5.5
SA norm (SEK) 7 797 7 977 7 791 8 008 8 011 8 008
Average regional welfare duration 4.6 4.6 4.6 6.6 6.7 6.6
Sample size 82 050 2 738 79 312 84 070 9 138 74 932