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Table 3 Estimation results of welfare participation by foreign-born, 1991-1999

From: Never give up? The persistence of welfare participation in Sweden

  Initial condition Participation equation
  PE SE PE SE ME
Age/100 −0.637* 0.281 −0.732* 0.161 −0.093
Educational level (CG: Primary school)      
Secondary school −0.200* 0.050 −0.128* 0.023 −0.016
Post Secondary school −0.706* 0.107 −0.387* 0.033 −0.044
City region −0.044 0.049 0.015 0.026 0.005
Married/Cohabitant −0.491* 0.047 −0.308* 0.021 −0.041
Children < 4 years 0.208* 0.046 0.121* 0.022 0.014
Unemployed 0.393* 0.055 0.288* 0.018 0.051
Municipal rate of SA-participation/10 0.357* 0.174 0.432* 0.065 0.041
Social assistance (SA) norm/10K −0.076 0.177 0.094* 0.028 0.011
Average municipal duration of SA /10 0.191 0.192 −0.274* 0.081 −0.049
Country of origin (CG: Nordic countries)      
Western Europe −0.344* 0.095 −0.244* 0.052 −0.030
Eastern Europe −0.061 0.106 −0.025* 0.055 −0.010
Southern Europe −0.488* 0.106 −0.158* 0.053 −0.021
Middle East 0.296* 0.098 0.379* 0.048 0.036
Rest of the world 0.295* 0.069 0.262* 0.038 0.031
Years since immigration (CG: 0–4 years)      
5–9 years −0.505* 0.059 −0.128* 0.027 −0.015
10–14 years −0.667* 0.065 −0.231* 0.033 −0.028
15–22 years −0.590* 0.063 −0.330* 0.035 −0.039
>22 years −0.701* 0.076 −0.441* 0.039 −0.053
Refugee 0.362* 0.079 0.070* 0.035 0.010
Structural state dependence (40 draws)    1.041* 0.053 0.125
Structural state dependence (100 draws)    1.018* 0.047  
Fixed time effects   YES   
   Alternative error schemes   
  General error structure First order Markov Component of variance
Log likelihood -15811.28 -16254.07 -15925.81
LR-test   885.58 114.53
  1. Note: n=84,070; See Table 2 for additional notes.