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Table 1 Descriptive averages of treated and untreated as measured in 1990, unless stated otherwise

From: Education and retirement: does University education at mid-age extend working life?

  Males Females
AE No AE p-valuea) Matched comparisons p-valuea) AE No AE p-valuea) Matched comparisons p-valuea)
Age in 1992 b) 46.56 47.85 .000 46.65 .495 46.07 47.17 .000 46.07 .982
Born 1937 .022 .046 .000 .028 .340 .013 .034 .000 .014 .581
Born 1950 .105 .071 .000 .107 .904 .139 .099 .000 .142 .770
No. of children at home 1.411 1.286 .000 1.437 .551 1.488 1.290 .000 1.488 .981
Married .684 .742 .000 .676 .632 .716 .698 .033 .708 .520
Divorced .120 .114 .510 .111 .485 .169 .161 .272 .165 .734
Humanities track .013 .013 .980 .012 .737 .033 .097 .000 .032 .887
Business track .046 .089 .000 .046 .999 .079 .383 .000 .086 .289
Engineering track .265 .437 .000 .252 .420 .022 .045 .000 .020 .595
Professional track .158 .366 .000 .169 .421 .369 .210 .000 .352 .162
Inland of Norrland c) .069 .046 .000 .068 .883 .076 .032 .000 .077 .887
Stockholm county c) .131 .227 .000 .126 .697 .134 .277 .000 .137 .711
Foreign born .019 .018 .668 .017 .576 .013 .019 .010 .012 .909
Regional employment .822 .829 .000 .822 .975 .825 .832 .000 .825 .399
Farming and mining .027 .020 .071 .026 .908 .016 .014 .370 .013 .240
Construction .079 .130 .000 .073 .527 .012 .023 .000 .015 .326
Manufacturing .271 .299 .023 .267 .801 .076 .144 .000 .071 .467
Finance, insurance .113 .157 .000 .114 .953 .081 .204 .000 .084 .712
Public sector .228 .105 .000 .242 .380 .579 .289 .000 .589 .441
Earnings 1990 227.6 289.1 .000 227.8 .954 158.8 182.9 .000 156.5 .219
Earnings 1982 196.9 236.9 .000 197.6 .849 106.0 124.9 .305 106.4 .832
Earnings change 1990-1988 −3.6 3.4 .003 −3.6 .317 14.1 18.6 .000 13.1 .525
Highest earnings rank 1982-1990 - -   -   .503 .635 .000 .504 .965
Unemp. insurance (UI) > 0 .046 .016 .000 .038 .267 .072 .040 .000 .070 .767
average amount if > 0 31.0 35.0 .294 31.5 .441 22.4 23.6 .447 24.1 .725
ALMP benefits > 0 .058 .009 .000 .052 .463 .045 .023 .000 .047 .671
average amount if > 0 18.6 22.2 .274 24.3 .557 28.6 26.2 .330 28.5 .782
Parental leave benefits > 0 .029 .014 .000 .026 .650 .024 .018 .019 .021 .440
average amount if > 0 11.9 11.4 .852 15.7 .658 23.4 29.5 .147 20.3 .315
Sick-leave benefits > 0 .655 .584 .000 .664 .638 .773 .716 .000 .770 .763
average amount if > 0 17.3 9.8 .000 16.6 .787 9.7 9.0 .058 10.0 .745
Social welfare benefits > 0 .042 .017 .000 .033 .239 .038 .021 .000 .038 .999
average amount if > 0 9.6 6.1 .009 8.9 .401 5.3 5.3 .930 6.0 .635
At some point registered in HE 1.000 .018 .000 .028 .000 1.000 .041 .000 .052 .000
Completed HE on average .773 .009 .000 .020 .000 1.165 .025 .000 .036 .000
Fraction completed less than 1 year .503 .011 .000 .013 .000 .391 .023 .000 .029 .000
Fraction completed 1–2 years .233 .005 .000 .010 .000 .146 .012 .000 .015 .000
Fraction completed 2–3 years .119 .001 .000 .003 .000 .307 .002 .000 .004 .000
Fraction completed 3 years or more .145 .001 .000 .002 .000 .156 .004 .000 .004 .000
N 1,445 113,183   1,445   3,113 42,019   3,113  
  1. Amounts given in thousands of SEK (2004 prices), € 100 was app. SEK 970.
  2. a)t- test for equality between average of treated and untreated matched comparisons.
  3. b) Balancing tests also include age dummies (14 categories), dummies for number of children (six categories), age of children (six categories) and annual earnings each year 1982–1990.
  4. c) The inland of Norrland is a sparsely populated area in the north of Sweden with permanently higher than average unemployment rates. Stockholm County hosts 20 percent of the population, and the overall employment level is higher than in any other region of Sweden.