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Table 1 Main characteristics of total native and immigrant workers in Portugal, average 2002-2008

From: Nominal and real wage rigidity: Does nationality matter?

  Natives Immigrants EU15 PALOP CEEC Brazil China
Total, levels in 2008 2,324,699 159,539 13,294 39,305 37,638 42,266 2,670
Share in total, 2008 93.6 6.4 8.3 24.6 23.6 26.5 1.7
Type of contract (%)        
Permanent contract 77.6 45.2 66.3 49.6 35.4 35.9 44.0
Fixed-term contract 22.4 54.8 33.7 50.4 64.6 64.1 56.0
Age        
Average years 37.9 35.7 36.5 36.5 36.3 33.0 34.3
% workers aged less 35 years 43.4 50.5 51.1 45.7 47.5 62.4 53.9
Tenure        
Average years 7.5 2.5 4.1 2.8 1.6 1.5 1.4
[0, 3] 43.7 78.6 61.8 74.6 86.2 88.0 89.1
of which <1 15.8 37.7 24.2 37.7 38.6 46.8 43.4
Educational attainment (%)        
Illiterate 1.2 4.1 0.5 4.8 6.3 1.7 15.4
4 years completed 24.0 23.2 7.9 34.1 20.6 16.7 38.8
6 years completed 22.1 17.0 11.7 16.9 16.9 18.5 15.0
9 years completed 21.6 24.3 19.9 21.8 26.7 27.9 20.0
12 years completed 20.0 23.0 29.7 16.7 23.7 29.3 7.6
Tertiary 11.0 8.5 30.2 5.8 5.9 5.8 3.2
Main sectors of activity (%)        
Manufacturing industry 28.4 15.7 20.6 8.8 22.0 10.7 1.4
Construction 11.4 23.7 8.2 28.5 31.9 19.2 0.6
Services, of which: 57.6 57.6 68.9 61.9 40.0 68.3 98.0
Wholesale and retail trade 20.0 13.5 19.9 11.1 9.1 15.8 49.9
Hotels and restaurants 6.2 15.3 11.5 14.6 10.6 23.5 45.1
Business services 9.6 15.5 12.8 23.6 10.7 15.2 1.1
Other sectors 2.6 3.0 2.3 0.8 6.1 1.9 0.1
Average nominal monthly wage        
In Euros 835.8 732.7 1436.5 668.8 596.0 716.1 449.4
% Minimum wage earners 8.0 12.6 6.8 8.4 13.3 16.7 57.3
  1. Source: Quadros de Pessoal.
  2. Notes: The shares of main immigrant groups are computed as a percentage of total immigrants. EU15 includes the other 14 initial Member-States of European Union. CEEC (Central and Eastern European countries) includes Slovakia, Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Estonia, Slovenia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Russian Federation, Moldova, Ukraine and Serbia. PALOP (Países Africanos de Língua Oficial Portuguesa) refers to the former Portuguese colonies in Africa (Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea Bissau, Mozambique, and São Tomé and Príncipe). Illiterate refers to no formal education or below ISCED 1, 4 years completed (primary education) and 6 years completed (second stage of basic education) are both included in ISCED 1, 9 years completed refers to ISCED 2 (lower secondary education), 12 years completed refers to ISCED 3-4 (upper-secondary) and tertiary refers to ISCED 5-6. ISCED stands for International Standard Classification of Education. The percentage of minimum wage earners was computed considering workers with wages in the interval of +/- 1 euro centred on the minimum wage.