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Table 3 Main characteristics of native and immigrant workers in Portugal, sample of job stayers, average 2002-2008

From: Nominal and real wage rigidity: Does nationality matter?

  Natives Immigrants EU15 PALOP CEEC Brazil China
Levels in 2008 1,386,734 62,374 7,241 15,208 14,901 13,454 804
Share in total, 2008 95.7 4.3 11.6 24.4 23.9 21.6 1.3
Type of contract (%)        
Permanent contract 81.6 53.2 72.2 59.6 40.0 43.3 48.3
Fixed-term contract 18.4 46.8 27.8 40.4 60.0 56.7 51.7
Age        
Average years 38.1 36.1 36.9 37.0 36.5 33.4 34.4
% workers aged less 35 years 42.4 48.9 49.3 43.9 46.5 60.9 53.3
Tenure        
Average years 8.1 3.3 4.6 3.8 2.2 2.1 1.8
[0, 3] 39.2 71.3 56.7 65.0 81.9 82.6 86.2
Educational attainment (%)        
Illiterate 1.2 4.2 0.5 5.4 6.8 1.7 17.1
4 years completed 24.0 21.8 7.2 31.7 20.6 16.4 41.3
6 years completed 22.0 17.1 11.7 16.9 17.0 18.9 13.9
9 years completed 20.9 23.4 18.8 21.4 26.4 26.2 18.5
12 years completed 20.2 23.1 28.8 17.2 22.9 29.8 6.4
Tertiary 11.6 10.4 33.0 7.4 6.3 7.0 2.8
Main sectors of activity (%)        
Manufacturing industry 30.1 19.3 22.3 11.2 26.2 13.4 1.3
Construction 10.7 20.9 7.6 26.3 29.3 16.8 0.6
Services, of which: 56.5 56.5 67.7 61.3 37.9 67.8 98.0
Wholesale and retail trade 20.2 15.3 20.3 13.1 10.1 18.2 53.9
Hotels and restaurants 5.7 14.8 9.8 15.4 10.4 23.3 41.7
Business services 8.6 10.9 11.8 16.7 6.7 11.0 0.9
Other sectors 2.7 3.3 2.4 1.2 6.6 1.9 0.1
Average nominal monthly wage        
In Euros 858.3 790.6 1507.9 718.8 599.3 787.8 456.8
% Minimum wage earners 7.3 11.7 6.1 7.8 13.5 14.9 56.3
  1. Source: Quadros de Pessoal.
  2. Notes: The sample of job stayers includes only the workers who stayed for at least two consecutive years in the same firm. The shares of main immigrant groups are computed as a percentage of total immigrants. EU15 includes the other 14 initial Member-States of European Union. CEEC (Central and Eastern European countries) includes Slovakia, Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Estonia, Slovenia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Russian Federation, Moldova, Ukraine and Serbia. PALOP (Países Africanos de Língua Oficial Portuguesa) refers to the former Portuguese colonies in Africa (Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea Bissau, Mozambique, and São Tomé and Príncipe). Illiterate refers to no formal education or below ISCED 1, 4 years completed (primary education) and 6 years completed (second stage of basic education) are both included in ISCED 1, 9 years completed refers to ISCED 2 (lower secondary education), 12 years completed refers to ISCED 3-4 (upper-secondary) and tertiary refers to ISCED 5-6. ISCED stands for International Standard Classification of Education. The percentage of minimum wage earners was computed considering workers with wages in the interval of +/- 1 euro centred on the minimum wage.