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Table 4 Estimates of downward nominal and real wage rigidity for natives and immigrants in Portugal

From: Nominal and real wage rigidity: Does nationality matter?

Total sample 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008   2003-2008
Average empirical wage change 4.3 4.2 4.3 4.1 4.6 4.9   4.4
Average notional wage change 2.3 1.7 2.0 1.5 2.6 2.6   2.1
Expected inflation rate 2.8 2.7 2.5 2.4 2.4 2.3   2.5
Average wage sweep-up, from: 2.0 2.5 2.2 2.6 2.1 2.3   2.3
Nominal wage rigidity 1.1 0.9 1.1 1.1 1.0 0.9   1.0
Real and institutional wage rigidity 1.0 1.6 1.2 1.5 1.1 1.4   1.3
Nominal wage rigidity measure 45.8 42.7 48.6 50.6 48.0 47.1   47.1
Real wage rigidity measure 16.9 28.5 22.4 30.8 0.0 19.5   19.7
Number of observations 171,270 169,835 173,582 173,903 173,408 144,911  
Natives 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008   2003-2008
Average empirical wage change 4.3 4.2 4.3 4.1 4.6 4.9   4.4
Average notional wage change 2.3 2.0 2.0 1.5 2.5 2.6   2.2
Expected inflation rate 2.9 2.8 2.5 2.4 2.4 2.3   2.5
Average wage sweep-up, from: 2.0 2.2 2.2 2.6 2.1 2.3   2.2
Nominal wage rigidity 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.0 0.9   1.0
Real and institutional wage rigidity 1.0 1.2 1.2 1.5 1.1 1.4   1.2
Nominal wage rigidity measure 46.0 45.6 48.2 50.4 48.3 47.2   47.6
Real wage rigidity measure 15.8 19.6 22.4 30.5 0.2 19.9   18.1
Number of observations 163,597 161,802 165,205 165,593 165,157 138,673  
Immigrants 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008   2003-2008
Average empirical wage change 4.5 4.3 4.7 4.6 5.3 5.5   4.8
Average notional wage change 1.7 -0.1 1.9 1.1 2.7 2.8   1.7
Expected inflation rate 2.8 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.4 2.3   2.5
Average wage sweep-up, from: 2.8 4.3 2.8 3.5 2.6 2.7   3.1
Nominal wage rigidity 1.1 1.5 1.2 1.4 1.0 0.9   1.2
Real and institutional wage rigidity 1.8 2.8 1.6 2.1 1.6 1.7   1.9
Nominal wage rigidity measure 43.3 53.9 49.1 54.9 47.6 43.8   48.8
Real wage rigidity measure 31.9 34.9 25.2 31.2 0.4 13.0   22.7
Number of observations 76,727 80,329 83,769 83,102 82,510 62,374  
  1. Notes: All samples include only workers who stayed for at least two consecutive years in the same firm (job stayers). In the case of the total and natives samples, the number of observations in each year refers to a 10 percent random sample that was selected from the respective samples of job stayers for estimating the rigidity measures. In the case of immigrants, the number observations refers to the total sample of job stayers.