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Table 4 Descriptive statistics, by gender and labour force status

From: Hours of work and retirement behaviour

Variable All Men Women
Labour force status All Retired Employed All Retired Employed All Retired Employed
Age (1) 56.84 58.82 55.68 56.85 58.67 55.75 56.84 59.02 55.59
(4.86) (4.72) (4.56) (4.82) (4.69) (4.56) (4.91) (4.74) (4.57)
Years of work (1) 37.95 39.60 36.98 39.30 40.81 38.39 36.35 38.11 35.33
(7.93) (7.95) (7.76) (7.20) (7.22) (7.04) (8.45) (8.53) (8.23)
Reduction(2) (Yes) 9.82 20.98 3.25 8.45 19.96 1.51 11.46 22.23 5.29
Activity sector          
  Agriculture 5.59 7.37 4.55 5.17 4.92 5.31 6.10 10.38 3.66
  Industrial 28.43 31.83 26.42 37.52 39.00 36.63 17.61 23.03 14.50
  Services 65.98 60.80 69.03 57.31 56.08 58.05 76.29 66.59 81.84
Blue-collar 54.45 53.89 54.78 59.23 55.15 61.69 48.75 52.34 46.70
Education          
  0 years 11.87 19.75 7.23 8.62 12.91 6.04 15.74 28.16 8.62
  4 years 51.55 46.88 54.29 56.37 55.25 57.05 45.81 36.60 51.08
  6 years 6.77 5.73 7.38 7.19 6.59 7.55 6.27 4.68 7.18
  9 years 11.06 11.21 10.97 11.55 12.53 10.96 10.47 9.58 10.97
  High school 6.92 6.45 7.20 6.70 6.87 6.60 7.18 5.93 7.90
  University 11.83 9.98 12.93 9.56 5.85 11.80 14.53 15.05 14.24
Region          
  North 24.50 22.72 24.83 25.55 24.88 25.95 22.26 20.07 23.51
  Centre 12.90 10.39 14.37 13.16 10.21 14.93 12.58 10.60 13.72
  Lisbon 22.57 25.74 20.70 21.40 26.18 18.51 23.96 25.20 23.25
  Alentejo 15.91 17.86 14.76 14.21 15.04 13.70 17.94 21.32 16.00
  Algarve 9.84 9.77 9.88 9.56 10.03 9.28 10.17 9.46 10.58
  Azores 6.96 7.47 6.66 8.48 8.82 8.28 5.15 5.82 4.77
  Madeira 7.78 6.04 8.80 7.64 4.83 9.34 7.93 7.53 8.16
Active spouse (3) 62.58 23.45 85.94 67.73 39.62 87.86 59.48 11.74 84.91
Observations 5,273 1,954 3,319 2,865 1,077 1,788 2,408 877 1,531
  1. Source: Computations from the authors based on the “Transition to Retirement” module data, 2006. Portugal, National Statistics Office (INE) (2009), data from the Labour Force Survey in magnetic medium.
  2. Notes: For retired individuals, the variable Age refers to the age of start of pension benefits’ receipt. (1)Continuous variables: standard deviations are presented in parenthesis. All other variables are dummies and values reported are percentages. (2)Answers (b), (c) and (d) of Question 2 were gathered into a single category “Did not reduce”. (3)There are 2,670 observations for the variable Active spouse.