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Table 5 Definition of the variables and mean characteristics

From: Hours of work and retirement behaviour

Variable Definition Mean or percentage
All Men Women
Age (time) Person’s age if employed or, if retired, the age of start of pension receipt 56.84 58.66 58.59
(4.86)(1) (5.85)(1) (5.96)(1)
Retired (failure) =1 if the person already exit the labour force 37.06 37.59 36.42
Reduction A =1 if the individual has effectively reduced his/her hours of work 9.82 8.45 11.46
Reduction B (2) =1 if the individual did reduce or intends to reduce hours of work 20.12 19.20 21.21
Male =1 if the person is of male gender 54.33 -- --
Activity sector     
  Agriculture =1 if the person works or worked in the agriculture sector 5.59 5.17 6.10
  Industrial =2 if the person works or worked in the industrial sector 28.43 37.52 17.61
  Services =3 if the person works or worked in the services sector (omitted category) 65.98 57.31 76.29
Blue-collar =1 if the individual works or has worked in an occupation classified as blue-collar 54.45 59.23 48.75
Education     
  0 years =1 if the person has no complete degree of education 11.87 8.62 15.74
  4 years =2 if the person completed 4 years of education 51.55 56.37 45.81
  6 years =3 if the person completed 6 years of education 6.77 7.19 6.27
  9 years =4 if the person completed 9 years of education 11.06 11.55 10.47
High school =5 if the person has a high-school diploma 6.92 6.70 7.18
University =6 if college degree 11.83 9.52 14.53
Region     
  North =1 if the person resides in the North of Portugal (omitted category) 24.05 25.55 22.26
  Centre =2 if the person resides in the Centre 12.90 13.16 12.58
  Lisbon =3 if resides in Lisbon 22.57 21.40 23.96
  Alentejo =4 if he/she resides in Alentejo 15.91 14.21 17.94
  Algarve =5 if he/she resides in Algarve 9.84 9.56 10.17
  Azores =6 if he/she resides in Azores 6.96 8.48 5.15
  Madeira =7 if he/she resides in Madeira 7.78 7.64 7.93
Active spouse (3) =1 if the spouse is still in activity 62.58 67.73 59.48
  1. Source: Computations from the authors based on the “Transition to Retirement” module data, 2006. Portugal, National Statistics Office (INE) (2009), data from the Labour Force Survey in magnetic medium.
  2. Note: (1)Standard deviation of the variable Age; (2)There are 2,738 observations for this variable; (3)There are 2,670 observations for the variable Active spouse. Number of observations: 5,273.