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Table 5 Description of macro policy and institutional indicators

From: Female labour market participation in Europe: novel evidence on trends and shaping factors

Final variable Original variable Description Source
Institutions Employment Protection Legislation Composite indicator of employment protection which refers both to regulations concerning hiring  
   (e.g. rules favouring disadvantaged groups, conditions for using temporary or fixed-term contracts,  
   training requirements) and firing (e.g. redundancy procedures, mandated prenotification periods and  
   severance payments, special requirements for collective dismissals and short-time work schemes). OECD, various years
  Passive Labour Market Policies Sum of national expenditures on active labour market policies (in percentage of national GDP),  
   including: Out-of-work income maintenance and support, Early retirement. OECD, various years
  Active Labour Market Policies Sum of national expenditures on active labour market policies (in percentage of national GDP),  
   including: Training, Job Rotation and Job Sharing, Employment incentives, Supported employment  
   and rehabilitation, Direct job creation, Start-up incentives. OECD, various years
Policies Elderly Subsidies Sum of national transfers to the elderly population (per head at constant prices (2000) and constant PPPs  
   (2000), in US dollars), weighted by the percentage of old-age population (over 70 years old) within the country.  
   This set of policies includes: Old age cash and in kind benefits, Residential care or Home-help services. OECD, various years
  Family Subsidies Sum of national expenditures on allowances and other type of monthly transfers to the households  
   (per family at constant prices (2000) and constant PPPs(2000), in US dollars). We consider a weighted  
   sum of monthly family allowances for the first, second, and third child in national currency, with weights  
   equal to the average number of children a woman would have if she lived to the end of her childbearing  
   years (conventionally considered to be 15-44 but sometimes 15-49) and bore children at the prevailing  
   rate for each age during that period. Value of tax and benefit transfers of one-earner-two-parent two-child  
   families are considered. The value was calculated by subtracting the disposable income (after taxes and  
   transfers) of a one-earner-two-parent-two-child family from that of a comparable childless single earner. Gauthier (2011a)
  Paternal Leave Composite indicator of national expenditures on maternity, parental, and child care leave schemes. It is a  
   weighted sum of the total number of weeks of maternity, parental and child-care leave, with weights equal  
   to the cash benefits paid during the leave as a percent of female wages in manufacturing. Gauthier (2011b)