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Figure 16 | IZA Journal of European Labor Studies

Figure 16

From: Income redistribution in the European Union

Figure 16

Progressivity of tax benefit income components, 2010. Note: The progressivity index is calculated as the Kakwani measure for taxes and minus Kakwani for benefits. Er SIC: employer contributions; Tax: gross tax payable in the no allowances scenarios (tax schedule); Tax Cred: tax credits; Tax All: net gain due to tax allowances; SIC: employee and self-employed insurance contributions; NC Ben: non contributory, non means-tested benefits; CT: contributory, non pension benefits; MT BEN: means-tested benefits; Pen: public pensions. Source: EUROMOD F6.2; version G1.0+ is used for NL.

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