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Table 5 Macedonia: Determinants of hourly earnings with selectivity correction

From: Occupational segregation and gender differentials in earnings in Macedonia

  Both sexes Men Women
  Coefficient Standard Coefficient Standard Coefficient Standard
   errora   errora   errora
Constant 3.2636 0.1105*** 3.2741 0.1213*** 2.5948 0.2255***
Education dummiesb       
 Primary 0.1251 0.0348*** 0.0737 0.0398* 0.3123 0.0697***
 Secondary, 3 years 0.2044 0.0408*** 0.1352 0.0444*** 0.4681 0.0856***
 Secondary, 4 years 0.2976 0.0418*** 0.2414 0.0446*** 0.5325 0.0892***
 Non-university post-secondary 0.4314 0.0509*** 0.4385 0.0572*** 0.5961 0.1038***
 University and above 0.6814 0.0558*** 0.6568 0.0597*** 0.9129 0.1165***
Years of potential experience 0.0123 0.0047*** 0.0186 0.0056*** 0.0173 0.0080**
Experience-squared -0.0002 0.0001** -0.0004 0.0001*** -0.0003 0.0002*
Unmarried person dummy -0.0521 0.0209** -0.1179 0.0280*** 0.0359 0.0312
Enterprise dummiesc       
 Public sector -0.1462 0.0196*** -0.1827 0.0278*** -0.1073 0.0267***
 Private, with <10 employees -0.2521 0.0258*** -0.2740 0.0353*** -0.2197 0.0371***
 Private, with 10–25 employees -0.0307 0.0332 -0.0320 0.0442 -0.0546 0.0492
Pension fund registration dummy 0.1316 0.0186*** 0.1196 0.0250*** 0.1509 0.0267***
Industry dummiesd       
 Manufacturing 0.1029 0.0276*** 0.0944 0.0329*** 0.1581 0.0530***
 Electricity, gas, water supply 0.4279 0.0379*** 0.4410 0.0438*** 0.3189 0.0795***
 Construction 0.1694 0.0334*** 0.1446 0.0384*** 0.0721 0.0785
 Wholesale and retail trade 0.1679 0.0338*** 0.1163 0.0421*** 0.2629 0.0592***
 Hotels and restaurants 0.2383 0.0454*** 0.1111 0.0600* 0.4327 0.0719***
 Transport and communications 0.2108 0.0357*** 0.1712 0.0414*** 0.3799 0.0757***
 Financial intermediation 0.6299 0.0530*** 0.6322 0.0882*** 0.6328 0.0722***
 Real estate and business services 0.1590 0.0459*** 0.0743 0.0564 0.3092 0.0804***
 Public administration 0.2543 0.0355*** 0.2764 0.0444*** 0.2177 0.0623***
 Education 0.1262 0.0368*** 0.0909 0.0499* 0.1794 0.0603***
 Health and social work 0.2162 0.0353*** 0.1858 0.0529*** 0.2224 0.0581***
 Other services 0.2519 0.0354*** 0.2347 0.0430*** 0.3101 0.0639***
Occupation dummiese       
 Managers and senior officials 0.2627 0.0416*** 0.2844 0.0513*** 0.2222 0.0749***
 Professionals 0.2341 0.0340*** 0.1863 0.0466*** 0.2921 0.0494***
 Technicians and associate professionals 0.2181 0.0295*** 0.1711 0.0393*** 0.2788 0.0452***
 Clerks 0.1519 0.0300*** 0.1046 0.0408** 0.1997 0.0447***
 Service and sales workers 0.0493 0.0273* 0.0642 0.0360* 0.0171 0.0413
 Craft and related trade workers 0.0657 0.0268** 0.0970 0.0340*** 0.0090 0.0444
 Plant and machine operators and assemblers 0.0446 0.0283 0.0629 0.0351* -0.0162 0.0536
Occupation feminization dummiesf       
 Feminization 21-40 percent -0.0856 0.0203*** -0.0590 0.0245** -0.0588 0.0477
 Feminization 41–60 percent -0.0933 0.0209*** -0.0586 0.0268** -0.0622 0.0458
 Feminization 61–80 percent -0.1809 0.0263*** -0.1833 0.0419*** -0.1088 0.0482**
 Feminization >80 percent -0.1710 0.0239*** -0.2265 0.0475*** -0.0999 0.0460**
Ethnic affiliation dummiesg       
 Ethnic Albanians -0.0407 0.0333 -0.0698 0.0349** -0.1745 0.0817**
 Other minorities -0.0254 0.0296 -0.0600 0.0351* -0.0455 0.0539
Region dummiesh       
 West Macedonia -0.0926 0.0182*** -0.1111 0.0243*** -0.0614 0.0284**
 East Macedonia -0.2123 0.0159*** -0.2502 0.0219*** -0.1647 0.0229***
 Central Macedonia -0.1329 0.0170*** -0.1476 0.0228*** -0.1199 0.0243***
Urban area dummy 0.0430 0.0157*** 0.0237 0.0192 0.1112 0.0243***
Selection term (LAMBDA) 0.1165 0.0437*** 0.2126 0.0519*** 0.1583 0.0718**
Female dummy -0.1265 0.0183***     
R-squared 0.3533    0.3078 0.4465  
Adjusted R-squared 0.3482    0.2989 0.4353  
F-ratio 68.51    34.54 40.10  
(N) 5436    3305 2131  
  1. aStandard error corrected for heteroscedasticity induced by the selection. The two-step sample selection model was estimated using LIMDEP.
  2. bThe omitted category is below primary education.
  3. cThe omitted category is private enterprises with more than 25 workers.
  4. dThe omitted category is agriculture.
  5. eThe omitted category is elementary (unskilled) occupations.
  6. fThe omitted category is feminization of 20 percent or less.
  7. gThe omitted category is ethnic Macedonian.
  8. hThe omitted category is Skopje region.
  9. ***significant at the 1 percent level; **significant at the 5 percent level; *significant at the 10 percent level.