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Table 3 Comparison of gross sample, refusals and realized sample in wave 1

From: The IZA evaluation dataset survey: a scientific use file

  Gross Wave 1 p-value
Sample Refusals Realized sample   
(1) (2) (3) (1) vs. (3) (2) vs. (3)
Number of observations 81,391 5,388 17,396   
Female 43.9 44.5 47.4 0.000 0.000
Age category
  ≤ 24 years 28.0 28.0 27.6 0.263 0.581
  25 to 34 years 26.6 25.7 26.1 0.114 0.631
  35 to 44 years 24.6 25.7 25.1 0.308 0.281
  ≥ 45 years 20.7 20.5 21.3 0.061 0.217
German citizen 91.1 92.6 92.7 0.000 0.001
School degree
  None, unknown 8.0 6.6 5.4 0.000 0.001
  Lower secondary school 34.7 35.2 30.5 0.000 0.000
  Middle secondary school 36.5 37.3 37.6 0.007 0.666
  Advanced middle sec. school 7.6 8.0 9.3 0.000 0.003
  Upper secondary school (A-level) 13.2 12.9 17.1 0.000 0.000
  1. Note: Numbers are percentages and based on administrative information included in the unemployment inflow statistic. Gross sample: Sample extracted from the unemployment inflow statistic (excluding eight individuals due to missing information in observable characteristics). Refusals: Individuals who have been contacted and refused to give an interview but were willing to provide at least some information about their current labor market activities (so-called soft-refusals). P-values are based on a simple t-test of equal means.