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Table 12 Wage equation, working age population (15–64), 2011

From: Does Italy represent an opportunity for temporary migrants from the eastern partnership countries?

  Total (a) Women (b)
  vs. Italians vs. total immigrants vs. Poland, Romania vs. Italians vs. total immigrants vs. Poland, Romania
Ukraine -0.26*** -0.04 -0.02 -0.27*** -0.06* -0.02
  (0.03) (0.04) (0.04) (0.03) (0.03) (0.04)
Moldova -0.15*** 0.00 -0.02 -0.12* 0.01 0.03
  (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.07) (0.07) (0.08)
Poland -0.17*** 0.04   -0.16** 0.05  
  (0.04) (0.04)   (0.06) (0.06)  
Romania -0.16*** -0.01   -0.19*** -0.03  
  (0.02) (0.02)   (0.03) (0.03)  
Female -0.08*** -0.10*** -0.12***    
  (0.01) (0.02) (0.04)    
Other controls variable       
25-35 0.13*** 0.10*** 0.06 0.14*** 0.13** 0.14*
  (0.02) (0.03) (0.06) (0.02) (0.05) (0.08)
35-44 0.23*** 0.08** 0.05 0.24*** 0.09* 0.12
  (0.02) (0.04) (0.06) (0.03) (0.05) (0.08)
45-54 0.28*** 0.10** 0.06 0.29*** 0.13** 0.16*
  (0.02) (0.04) (0.08) (0.03) (0.06) (0.09)
55-64 0.33*** 0.05 -0.02 0.36*** 0.02 0.04
  (0.02) (0.05) (0.09) (0.03) (0.07) (0.10)
Married 0.11*** 0.05*** 0.04 0.09*** 0.02 0.01
  (0.01) (0.02) (0.03) (0.01) (0.03) (0.04)
North-east -0.02*** 0.01 0.06** -0.03*** 0.03 0.08*
  (0.01) (0.02) (0.03) (0.01) (0.03) (0.04)
Centre -0.06*** -0.05** -0.09** -0.06*** -0.04 -0.07
  (0.01) (0.02) (0.03) (0.01) (0.03) (0.05)
South -0.14*** -0.27*** -0.34*** -0.13*** -0.26*** -0.31***
  (0.01) (0.03) (0.05) (0.01) (0.05) (0.06)
Islands -0.15*** -0.29*** -0.30*** -0.12*** -0.22*** -0.17*
  (0.01) (0.04) (0.07) (0.02) (0.06) (0.10)
Experience 0.00*** -0.00** -0.00** 0.00*** -0.00** -0.00**
  (0.00) (0.00) (0.00) (0.00) (0.00) (0.00)
Experience sq. -0.00*** 0.00** 0.00** -0.00*** 0.00** 0.00**
  (0.00) (0.00) (0.00) (0.00) (0.00) (0.00)
Lower sec. 0.07*** 0.05 0.05 0.01 0.03 0.06
  (0.02) (0.03) (0.08) (0.03) (0.05) (0.14)
Upper sec. 0.22*** 0.05* 0.07 0.18*** 0.04 0.09
  (0.02) (0.03) (0.08) (0.03) (0.06) (0.14)
Tertiary 0.44*** 0.17*** 0.14 0.42*** 0.17*** 0.16
  (0.02) (0.04) (0.09) (0.03) (0.06) (0.15)
Agriculture -0.29*** -0.18*** -0.18*** -0.35*** -0.28*** -0.21**
  (0.02) (0.03) (0.06) (0.04) (0.08) (0.10)
Construction -0.05*** -0.01 0.00 0.04 -0.42** -0.69***
  (0.01) (0.02) (0.04) (0.03) (0.19) (0.22)
Commerce -0.04*** -0.01 0.06 -0.04*** -0.05 0.02
  (0.01) (0.02) (0.04) (0.01) (0.05) (0.06)
Business -0.01 -0.09*** -0.03 -0.02 -0.10** -0.00
  (0.01) (0.03) (0.06) (0.01) (0.05) (0.06)
Public and social 0.12*** 0.11*** 0.11** 0.14*** 0.09* 0.08
  (0.01) (0.04) (0.05) (0.01) (0.05) (0.05)
Social and families -0.11*** -0.08*** -0.05 -0.13*** -0.10** -0.09*
  (0.01) (0.03) (0.05) (0.02) (0.04) (0.05)
Years since migration   0.01 -0.00   -0.00 -0.01
   (0.00) (0.01)   (0.01) (0.02)
Years since migration sq.   0.00 0.00   0.00* 0.00
   (0.00) (0.00)   (0.00) (0.00)
Constant 1.64*** 1.74*** 1.82*** 1.59*** 1.73*** 1.67***
  (0.02) (0.05) (0.11) (0.04) (0.09) (0.17)
Observations 36,918 4,190 1640 16,906 1,861 959
  1. Standard errors in parenthesis. *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1.
  2. Reference categories are: 15-24 years old, non-married, north-west, primary education and below, industry.