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Table 1 Descriptive statistics of students and schools in PISA 2000 and PISA 2009 (reading)

From: Publicizing the results of standardized external tests: does it have an effect on school outcomes?

  Treatment group before change - School Madrid in PISA exam 2000 Control group before change - School NO Madrid in PISA exam 2000 Treatment group after change - School Madrid in PISA exam 2009 Control group after change - School NO Madrid in PISA exam 2009
Variable Mean Std. Dev. Min Max Mean Std. Dev. Min Max Mean Std. Dev. Min Max Mean Std. Dev. Min Max
Subjects - Plausible values                 
 Reading - PV1 510.16 79.75 245.12 697.46 491.56 84.70 150.64 777.08 504.38 85.14 74.61 721.54 483.75 89.49 6.65 814.71
 Reading - PV2 509.94 82.20 204.02 711.64 491.47 84.37 151.55 756.66 504.39 85.52 91.12 822.19 483.82 89.90 60.42 824.33
 Reading - PV3 510.29 81.44 237.66 716.00 491.89 84.88 157.91 768.72 503.43 83.68 60.18 733.45 483.84 89.65 19.36 814.71
 Reading - PV4 508.55 81.72 229.34 710.26 491.36 84.87 117.01 751.45 503.58 85.14 80.22 702.07 483.67 90.16 29.15 877.24
 Reading - PV5 508.86 81.96 176.62 709.59 491.23 85.21 112.65 782.35 504.67 84.54 124.31 729.32 483.96 89.75 64.42 904.50
Individual characteristics                 
 Female 0.51 0.50 0 1 0.51 0.50 0 1 0.50 0.50 0 1 0.49 0.50 0 1
 Age 15.80 0.28 15.33 16.25 15.79 0.28 15.33 16.25 15.87 0.28 15.33 16.33 15.86 0.29 15.33 16.33
 Immigrant 0.03 0.18 0 1 0.02 0.15 0 1 0.16 0.37 0 1 0.09 0.28 0 1
 Mother immigrant 0.07 0.25 0 1 0.04 0.19 0 1 0.21 0.41 0 1 0.12 0.33 0 1
 Father immigrant 0.05 0.22 0 1 0.03 0.18 0 1 0.20 0.40 0 1 0.11 0.31 0 1
 Languages other than Spanish spoken at home 0.01 0.09 0 1 0.17 0.37 0 1 0.05 0.22 0 1 0.16 0.37 0 1
 Single parent family 0.17 0.37 0 1 0.17 0.37 0 1 0.16 0.37 0 1 0.13 0.34 0 1
 Nuclear family 0.79 0.41 0 1 0.79 0.41 0 1 0.83 0.38 0 1 0.85 0.35 0 1
 Mixed family 0.04 0.21 0 1 0.05 0.21 0 1 0.01 0.09 0 1 0.01 0.11 0 1
 Learning time (hours/week) in Language 3.30 0.74 0.00 4.58 3.04 0.74 0.00 4.33 3.66 0.68 1.67 9.00 3.37 0.70 0.00 9.00
 ESCS (Index of Economic, Social and Cultural Status) −0.16 1.01 −2.79 2.13 −0.40 1.05 −4.05 2.21 −0.09 1.05 −3.40 2.85 −0.26 1.05 −5.34 3.41
 ESCS squared 1.05 1.14 0.00 7.80 1.26 1.42 0.00 16.42 1.11 1.30 0.00 11.57 1.18 1.44 0.00 28.54
School characteristics                 
 Public school 0.56 0.50 0 1 0.63 0.48 0 1 0.60 0.49 0 1 0.63 0.48 0 1
 Private school 0.16 0.36 0 1 0.08 0.27 0 1 0.08 0.27 0 1 0.03 0.18 0 1
 Charter school 0.28 0.45 0 1 0.29 0.46 0 1 0.32 0.47 0 1 0.34 0.47 0 1
 School in village 0.00 0.00 0 0 0.02 0.15 0 1 0.02 0.14 0 1 0.06 0.24 0 1
 School in small town 0.00 0.00 0 0 0.24 0.42 0 1 0.11 0.32 0 1 0.26 0.44 0 1
 School in town 0.18 0.38 0 1 0.34 0.47 0 1 0.27 0.44 0 1 0.35 0.48 0 1
School in city 0.36 0.48 0 1 0.36 0.48 0 1 0.16 0.36 0 1 0.32 0.47 0 1
 School in large city 0.47 0.50 0 1 0.04 0.21 0 1 0.44 0.50 0 1 0.01 0.12 0 1
 Student/teacher ratio 16.93 4.39 10.90 26.80 14.15 4.66 5.66 27.60 12.76 4.23 1.18 20.27 11.29 4.69 0.82 39.88
 School size 1,048.43 493.49 335.00 2,139.00 725.64 345.15 93.00 1,742.00 851.82 416.07 100.00 2,268.00 685.72 392.01 44.00 2,785.00
 Assessments used to compare the school to district/national performance 0.32 0.47 0 1 0.18 0.39 0 1 0.50 0.50 0 1 0.28 0.45 0 1
 Assessments used to make judgments about teacher’s effectiveness 0.47 0.50 0 1 0.40 0.49 0 1 0.62 0.48 0 1 0.45 0.50 0 1
 No. of observations - schools 20     165     51     838    
 No. of observations - students 679     5535     1453     24434