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Table 2 Descriptive statistics of students and schools in PISA 2003 and PISA 2012 (mathematics)

From: Publicizing the results of standardized external tests: does it have an effect on school outcomes?

  Treatment group before change - School Madrid in PISA exam 2003 Control group before change - School NO Madrid in PISA exam 2003 Treatment group after change - School Madrid in PISA exam 2012 Control group after change - School NO Madrid in PISA exam 2012
Variable Mean Std. dev. Min Max Mean Std. dev. Min Max Mean Std. dev. Min Max Mean Std. dev. Min Max
Subjects - Plausible values                 
 Mathematics - PV1 493.98 92.37 238.46 706.68 495.25 85.81 122.01 807.17 505.28 85.22 212.19 752.38 494.72 88.61 98.23 811.82
 Mathematics - PV2 492.34 91.10 197.49 701.70 495.11 86.17 56.27 788.63 506.72 86.36 235.56 732.44 494.91 88.77 145.12 815.71
 Mathematics - PV3 494.73 87.87 216.34 694.69 494.23 85.59 137.67 793.61 506.62 85.74 237.51 818.83 494.88 88.47 139.52 821.94
 Mathematics - PV4 495.29 90.48 229.35 731.61 495.14 85.91 117.34 770.01 505.09 85.69 208.22 753.40 494.61 88.57 138.81 792.42
 Mathematics - PV5 491.91 92.66 202.94 723.35 494.47 85.62 143.82 777.49 504.92 85.95 207.36 754.18 494.74 88.63 128.61 829.65
Individual characteristics                 
 Female 0.50 0.50 0 1 0.51 0.50 0 1 0.49 0.50 0 1 0.50 0.50 0 1
 Age 15.85 0.29 15.25 16.33 15.86 0.29 15.25 16.42 15.86 0.29 15.33 16.33 15.87 0.29 15.33 16.33
 Immigrant 0.07 0.25 0 1 0.03 0.17 0 1 0.16 0.36 0 1 0.11 0.31 0 1
 Mother immigrant 0.12 0.33 0 1 0.04 0.20 0 1 0.21 0.41 0 1 0.13 0.34 0 1
 Father immigrant 0.09 0.29 0 1 0.04 0.19 0 1 0.19 0.39 0 1 0.12 0.32 0 1
 Language other than Spanish spoken at home 0.04 0.19 0 1 0.14 0.35 0 1 0.05 0.22 0 1 0.15 0.36 0 1
 Single parent family 0.18 0.38 0 1 0.13 0.33 0 1 0.11 0.31 0 1 0.10 0.30 0 1
 Nuclear family 0.79 0.41 0 1 0.83 0.38 0 1 0.89 0.32 0 1 0.90 0.31 0 1
 Other family 0.04 0.18 0 1 0.05 0.21 0 1 0.00 0.05 0 1 0.01 0.08 0 1
 Learning time (hours/week) in mathematics 3.05 0.60 0.92 7.33 2.97 0.73 0.00 15.00 3.56 1.02 2.25 14.00 3.46 0.66 2.25 16.00
 ESCS (Index of Economic, Social and Cultural Status) −0.12 0.97 −3.74 2.10 −0.20 0.98 −3.40 2.39 0.12 1.01 −2.77 2.55 −0.13 1.00 −5.30 2.73
 ESCS squared 0.94 1.38 0.00 13.96 1.00 1.28 0.00 11.55 1.03 1.14 0.00 7.67 1.02 1.17 0.00 28.09
School characteristics                 
 Public school 0.54 0.50 0 1 0.55 0.50 0.00 1.00 0.60 0.49 0 1 0.64 0.48 0 1
 Private school 0.07 0.26 0 1 0.06 0.24 0 1 0.24 0.43 0 1 0.04 0.19 0 1
 Charter school 0.39 0.49 0 1 0.39 0.49 0 1 0.16 0.37 0 1 0.33 0.47 0 1
 School in village 0.00 0.00 0 0 0.05 0.22 0 1 0.00 0.00 0 0 0.06 0.23 0 1
 School in small town 0.05 0.23 0 1 0.24 0.43 0 1 0.12 0.32 0 1 0.28 0.45 0 1
 School in town 0.23 0.42 0 1 0.33 0.47 0 1 0.30 0.46 0 1 0.31 0.46 0 1
 School in city 0.13 0.33 0 1 0.36 0.48 0 1 0.25 0.43 0 1 0.34 0.47 0 1
 School in large city 0.59 0.49 0 1 0.02 0.15 0 1 0.33 0.47 0 1 0.01 0.12 0 1
 Student/teacher ratio 15.61 5.48 9.44 24.36 13.23 5.31 1.38 44.30 13.58 2.66 7.97 20.46 11.68 5.45 1.11 82.56
 School size 880.37 401.45 389 1951 710.70 432.90 95 2819 861.37 433.83 161 2122 700.25 422.42 28 4128
 Assessments used to compare the school to district/national performance 0.12 0.33 0 1 0.26 0.44 0 1 0.82 0.39 0 1 0.40 0.49 0 1
 Assessments used to make judgements about teacher’s effectiveness 0.24 0.42 0 1 0.40 0.49 0 1 0.62 0.49 0 1 0.50 0.50 0 1
 No. of observations - schools 18     365     51     851    
 No. of observations - students 511     10280     1542     23771