Skip to main content

Table 3 Difference in difference estimations for PISA 2000 and PISA 2009 in reading

From: Publicizing the results of standardized external tests: does it have an effect on school outcomes?

Variable (1) (2) (3) (4)
 Madrid 13.620* 9.327 2.071 2.761
  (8.107) (5.841) (8.001) (6.869)
Madrid*PISA2009 12.267 13.718** 16.985** 15.415**
  (9.703) (6.867) (8.083) (7.657)
 PISA2009 −13.185*** −9.499*** −5.448 −8.436**
  (3.635) (2.995) (3.843) (3.744)
Student characteristics     
 Female   27.230*** 26.115*** 26.231***
   (1.789) (1.781) (1.696)
 Age   18.521*** 19.680*** 19.180***
   (3.118) (3.372) (3.366)
 Immigrant   −17.608*** −16.988** −19.294***
   (6.301) (6.778) (6.504)
 Mother immigrant   −13.890** −14.851** −11.932*
   (6.766) (7.345) (7.027)
 Father immigrant   −8.080 −7.079 −5.043
   (5.609) (5.983) (6.043)
 Foreign language spoken at home   −4.108 −2.888 −0.192
   (2.689) (2.615) (2.721)
 Single parent family   −4.899** −5.730** −6.146***
   (2.288) (2.312) (2.178)
 Mixed family   −22.204*** −24.441*** −25.051***
   (5.404) (5.750) (5.911)
 Learning time (hours/week) in reading   −8.492*** −8.690*** −12.495***
  (1.420) (1.545) (1.587)
 ESCS (Index of Economic, Social and Cultural Status)   27.955*** 24.845*** 19.628***
   (1.100) (1.072) (0.852)
 ESCS squared   −1.564** −1.868** −1.656**
   (0.757) (0.763) (0.710)
School characteristics     
 Private school    23.473*** −3.719
    (8.548) (8.095)
Charter school    12.103** −1.032
    (5.776) (5.099)
 School in small town    1.078 1.581
    (6.443) (4.890)
 School in town    1.749 0.086
    (6.653) (5.042)
 School in city    7.013 4.163
    (7.233) (5.556)
 School in large city    12.746 8.784
    (8.965) (6.671)
 Student/teacher ratio    0.038 0.373
    (0.657) (0.544)
 School size    0.005 −0.006*
    (0.004) (0.004)
Assessments used to compare the school to district/national performance    −1.527 −2.520
   (2.993) (2.959)
Assessments used to make judgments about teacher’s effectiveness    0.592 −0.442
   (2.669) (2.389)
 Proportion of girls in school     −14.228
     (13.844)
 School average of ESCS index     23.880***
     (2.808)
 School average of ESCS index squared     −8.226***
    (2.706)
 % of Immigrant students in school     0.471
    (0.451)
 % of Mother immigrants in school     −0.109
    (0.336)
 % of Father immigrants in school     −0.538
     (0.415)
 School average learning time (hours/week) in reading     11.089***
    (3.485)
 Constant 490.770*** 229.792*** 197.296*** 221.023***
  (2.793) (49.645) (54.414) (55.028)
  1. Notes:
  2. 1. Standard errors in parentheses. *significant at 10%; **significant at 5%; ***significant at 1%.
  3. 2. Base categories for dummies: male, student Spain, Mother Spain, Father Spain, Nuclear family, Public school, School in village.