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Table 4 Difference in difference estimations for PISA 2003 and PISA 2012 in mathematics

From: Publicizing the results of standardized external tests: does it have an effect on school outcomes?

Variable (1) (2) (3) (4)
 Madrid 9.580 7.133 −4.163 −7.149
  (9.973) (5.889) (7.635) (7.098)
 Madrid*PISA2012 12.826 8.523 12.794 15.014**
  (10.412) (6.807) (8.019) (7.616)
 PISA2012 −2.396 3.678 2.655 2.444
  (3.258) (2.470) (3.334) (4.038)
Student characteristics     
 Female   −12.249*** −12.394*** −13.335***
   (1.684) (1.663) (1.704)
 Age   16.332*** 15.687*** 16.237***
   (3.578) (3.536) (3.457)
 Immigrant   −16.357** −15.323** −16.337**
   (7.381) (7.733) (7.564)
 Mother immigrant   −11.877** −10.949** −9.941*
   (5.123) (5.167) (5.629)
 Father immigrant   −10.109* −13.621** −10.678*
   (5.846) (6.207) (6.100)
 Foreign language spoken at home   2.687 0.741 0.245
   (2.535) (2.893) (3.091)
 Single parent family   −5.800** −6.578*** −7.670***
   (2.703) (2.548) (2.550)
 Other family   −11.687* −12.833** −14.199**
   (6.380) (6.403) (6.407)
 Learning time (hours/week) in mathematics   −4.703*** −6.415*** −4.428**
  (1.581) (1.670) (2.048)
 ESCS (Index of Economic, Social and Cultural Status)   31.585*** 28.372*** 22.565***
   (1.216) (1.364) (1.149)
 ESCS squared   0.235 −0.373 0.307
   (0.670) (0.809) (0.833)
School characteristics     
 Private school    17.595*** 1.136
    (6.100) (6.497)
 Charter school    15.084*** 7.133*
    (4.309) (3.943)
 School in small town    1.443 3.907
    (5.362) (6.220)
 School in town    −0.156 1.079
    (5.769) (6.134)
 School in city    3.369 4.468
    (5.908) (6.456)
 School in large city    16.060* 18.122*
    (8.825) (9.288)
 Student/teacher ratio    0.001 −0.170
    (0.373) (0.348)
 School size    0.005 −0.003
    (0.005) (0.005)
 Assessments used to compare the school to district/national performance    4.754 1.931
   (2.917) (2.688)
 Assessments used to make judgements about teacher’s effectiveness    −2.688 −2.103
   (3.352) (3.104)
 Propotion of girls in school     47.438***
     (17.498)
 School average of ESCS index     25.561***
     (3.435)
 School average of ESCS index squared     −10.033***
    (3.860)
 % of Immigrant students in school     0.443
    (0.346)
 % of Mother immigrants in school     −0.030
    (0.355)
 % of Father immigrants in school     −0.593
     (0.370)
 School average learning time (hours/week) in mathematics     −2.967
    (4.544)
 Constant 483.786*** 259.479*** 266.709*** 265.572***
  (2.370) (57.943) (56.686) (57.408)
  1. Notes:
  2. 1. Standard errors in parentheses. *significant at 10%; **significant at 5%; ***significant at 1%.
  3. 2. Base categories for dummies: male, student Spain, Mother Spain, Father Spain, Nuclear family, Public school, School in village.