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Table 1 Selection equation estimates, by gender, 1960-2000

From: Gender and occupational wage gaps in Romania: from planned equality to market inequality?

  Women Men
1960- 89 1994   1996   1998   2000   1960- 89 1994   1996   1998   2000  
c1 −0.894 *** −0.510 ** −1.072 *** −1.345 *** −0.682 ** −1.285 *** −0.938 *** −0.544 *** −0.610 *** −0.754 ***
c2 2.138 *** 2.112 *** 1.658 *** 1.547 *** 2.149 *** 1.595 *** 1.698 *** 2.174 *** 2.214 *** 1.931 ***
Age 0.425 *** 0.365 *** 0.004   0.000   0.274 * −0.119   −0.303 *** −0.008   0.029   −0.009  
Age2/10 −0.049 ** −0.034 ** 0.014   0.005   −0.024   0.026   0.048 *** 0.007   0.003   0.012  
Educational Level1)                     
Vocational 0.113 * 0.222 *** 0.219 *** 0.253 *** 0.182 *** −0.128 ** 0.155 *** 0.105 *** 0.097 *** −0.255 ***
High school 2 years# 0.766 *** 0.802 *** 0.173 *** 0.226 *** 0.273 *** 0.208 *** 0.372 *** 0.034   0.139 *** −0.172 ***
High school 4 years      0.934 *** 0.975 *** 0.932 ***      0.403 *** 0.421 *** −0.017  
After high school 0.922 *** 0.718 *** 0.805 *** 1.066 *** 1.033 *** 0.719 *** 0.689 *** 0.634 *** 0.652 *** −0.546 ***
University 0.163   0.159 *** 0.296 *** 0.347 *** 0.343 *** 0.076   0.470 *** 0.381 *** 0.466 *** 0.065  
Region                     
R1: North-East −0.101 * −0.174 *** −0.185 *** −0.240 *** −0.173 *** −0.010   −0.107 *** −0.182 *** −0.151 *** 0.033  
R2: South-East −0.067   −0.008   −0.087 ** −0.151 *** −0.101 ** −0.277 *** 0.047   −0.047   −0.110 *** −0.183 ***
R3:South 0.057   −0.114 *** −0.072 * −0.122 *** −0.094 ** −0.145 ** −0.064 ** −0.140 *** −0.128 *** −0.089 **
R4: South-West −0.017   −0.075 * −0.162 *** −0.200 *** −0.215 *** 0.007   −0.050   −0.086 ** −0.076 * 0.019  
R8: Bucharest 0.154 * −0.090 ** −0.050   −0.055   −0.089 * −0.023   0.096 ** 0.043   −0.025   −0.099 **
Hungarians*Center −0.225   −0.403   −0.150   0.242   −0.434   −0.761   −0.287   −0.185   0.101   −0.428  
Married −0.046   −0.013   0.031   −0.030   0.004   −0.046   −0.127 *** −0.105 *** −0.225 *** −0.071 *
Urban −0.109 ** 0.072 ** −0.020   −0.056   −0.014   0.034   0.032   −0.009   0.026   0.082 ***
Ethnicity2)                     
Romanian −0.234 * −0.083   −0.025   −0.003   −0.015   −0.212 * −0.042   −0.053   −0.154 * −0.009  
Hungarian 0.048   0.330   0.067   −0.201   0.404   0.635   0.255   0.060   −0.196   0.575  
Group3)                     
Agriculture    −0.538 *** −0.563 *** −0.327 *** −0.208 **    −0.523 *** −0.457 *** −0.352 *** −0.437 ***
Industry    −0.565 *** −0.477 *** −0.428 *** −0.433 ***    0.127 *** 0.217 *** 0.227 *** 0.116 ***
Private ownership 0.406 *** 0.046   0.034   −0.040   −0.135 *** −0.179 ** 0.138 *** 0.099 *** 0.065 ** 0.107 ***
Children aged < 18 −0.072 *** −0.048 *** −0.042 *** −0.041 *** −0.006   −0.020   0.010   0.010   0.020   −0.022 *
Multi-generation household −0.086   0.058   0.014   −0.097 ** 0.062   0.034   0.010   0.065 * 0.033   0.109 ***
Variance-covariances                     
Var(U 1) 0.158 ** 0.230 *** 0.231 *** 0.276 *** 0.274 *** 0.143 *** 0.233 *** 0.266 *** 0.259 *** 0.363 ***
Var(U 2) 0.362 *** 0.196 *** 0.196 *** 0.180 *** 0.201 *** 0.246 *** 0.203 *** 0.203 *** 0.186 *** 0.210 ***
Var(U 3) 0.275 *** 0.236 *** 0.209 *** 0.159 *** 0.188 *** 0.148 *** 0.177 *** 0.129 *** 0.156 ** 0.464 ***
Cov(U 1, ε) −0.241   −0.284 *** −0.332 *** −0.380 *** −0.381 *** 0.010   −0.329 *** −0.402 *** −0.391 *** 0.516 ***
Cov(U 2, ε) −0.300 *** −0.245 *** −0.279 *** −0.292 *** −0.319 *** 0.142 *** −0.264 *** −0.293 *** −0.271 *** 0.292 ***
Cov(U 3, ε) −0.461 *** −0.374 *** −0.271 *** −0.162 ** −0.243 *** −0.103   −0.255 ** −0.085   0.139   0.619 ***
Likelihood −6266.7 −12476.5 −11197.5 −9426.8 −8267.2 −6923.4 −17877.1 −15364.5 −13023.9 −10944
  1. Notes: The estimate is significant at the 10% level (*), at the 5% level (**), and at the 1% level (***). These notes hold for all tables of estimates. (1)The comparison group is compulsory; (2)the comparison group is all other ethnicities; (3)the comparison group is services. Dummies for 5-year plan periods and three dummies for ownership were also included.