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Table 1 Characteristics of school-to-work transition regimes

From: The European Youth Guarantee: labor market context, conditions and opportunities in Italy

  Scandinavian Central-European Anglo-Saxon South-European East.European
Educational system model Sequential Dual Sequential Sequential Sequesntial, except for some countries which follow the dual system (Hungary and some South-European countries)
Mobility between curricula Rigid Very rigid and segmented school track Flexible, both at the school and at the university level Flexible in principle, but rigid in practice Rigid
Education attainment High shares of secondary and tertiary education attainment High shares of secondary and tertiary education attainment High shares of secondary andtertiary education attainment Low education attainment High, but with some exceptions
ALMP Very common for every young NEET Common as a last resort after high vocational and professional school Last resort, to be used only if leading quickly to work Marginal and underdeveloped, Marginal in most countries
PES (see Table 2) Relatively efficient, well-endowed in terms of resources, based on the Ghent model Strong presence of the unions, integrated with the school system, relatively efficient Centrally managed, little role of trade unions, principle of horizontal subsidiarity Decentralized, lack of coordination, insufficient resources Relatively inefficient, insufficient resources
PLMP Unemployment benefits for a limited period of time and awarded on a contractual basis, linked to some program, plus means-tested income support after a year, awarded by PES as based on the Ghent model Similar to Scadinavian countries, Similar to the Scandinavian countries, but state-based Unemployment benefits but no means-tested income support Unemployment benefits and means-tested income support in some countries
Role of the family Marginal Marginal Marginal Central Marginal except for the South-East-European countries and the
EPL (based on the OECD assessment) Rigid, but becoming slowly more flexible Rigid, but becoming slowly more flexible Very flexible Rigid, but with two-tier reforms Quite flexible, with two tier reforms