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Table 6 Descriptive statistics for the estimation sample (percent except if otherwise indicated)

From: Employment and wages before and after incarceration – evidence from Hungary

  Non-recidivists Recidivists
Male 91.2 94.0
Age in 2002 (year) 36.9 (9.9) 35.5 (8.9)
Number of prison spells in 2002–08 1 2.1 (0.8)
Average duration of completed prison spells, months (standard deviation) 12.8 (13.2) 12.9 (11.9)
Employed at least once in 2002–08 61.6 40.5
Employed on the 15th day of the month 2002–08 18.2 7.4
Days in work/potential days in work 2002–08 (standard deviation) 17.3 (37.3) 6.7 (24.5)
Days in work/potential days in work when employed 95.4 91.9
Employed for one day during the month 0.8 2.5
Average completed duration of employment spells, months (standard deviation) 8.2 (13.7) 5.0 (8.8)
Completed employment spells shorter than:   
 - 1 month 23.1 29.3
 - 3 months 48.2 58.7
 - 6 months 65.1 75.9
 - 1 year 81.0 89.1
Occupational status when employed   
 - elementary 45.5 54.0
 - middling 39.4 34.6
 - professional 7.7 4.4
 - unknown 7.2 7.0
Employment relationship   
 - Employee 86.2 89.4
 - Public employee, civil servant 3.6 2.4
 - Self-employed 6.8 4.2
 - Registered casual worker 1.3 2.4
 - Other 0.7 0.8
 - Mixed (more than one type at a time) 1.4 0.8
Monthly earnings/national average (standard deviation) 63.1 (43.3) 53.9 (32.6)
Daily earnings/national average (standard deviation) 67.1 (58.2) 60.0 (45.1)
Received transfer when non-employed   
 - Unemployment insurance benefit 8.9 5.2
 - Pension, disability pension 4.1 1.8
 - Other transfer 6.4 1.4
 - Several transfers at a time 0.9 0.2
 - None of the above transfers 79.7 91.5
Registered at a labor office when non-employed 14.5 10.3
  1. Elementary: cleaners, material handlers, porters and guards, other unskilled manual, machine operators, drivers. Professionals: managers, teachers, doctors, other professionals, professional military personnel. Middling: all other occupations