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Table 1 Descriptive statistics of establishment characteristics, split by WTA and non-WTA firms and pooled over 2008–2013, t tests of the difference between means of the two types of firms

From: Working time accounts and firm performance in Germany

  WTA = 1 WTA = 0 t-test
  mean sd mean sd t value
log(PRODUCTIVITY) 11.600 (0.93) 11.215 (0.96) 76.42***
log(WAGES per EMPLOYEE) 7.599 (0.50) 7.189 (0.66) 150.54***
log(FIRM SIZE) 3.908 (1.66) 2.500 (1.40) 183.04***
log(INVESTMENTS) 12.181 (2.39) 10.645 (2.05) 148.10***
log(GRADUATES) 1.534 (1.83) 0.520 (1.13) 159.35***
log(SKILLED WORKERS) 3.333 (1.75) 1.823 (1.47) 184.34***
log(OPERATING SURPLUS) 14.477 (1.99) 12.856 (1.71) 160.05***
PROFITS 3.302 (1.02) 3.183 (1.00) 23.72***
LABOR HOARDING 0.454 (0.50) 0.530 (0.50) −34.04***
PART-TIME WORK 0.851 (0.36) 0.769 (0.42) 46.83***
TEMPORARY WORK 0.207 (0.41) 0.055 (0.23) 99.61***
EXTRA PAYMENTS 0.206 (0.40) 0.108 (0.31) 59.24***
REORGANIZATION 0.026 (0.16) 0.008 (0.09) 29.87***
COMPETITIVE PRESSURE 2.996 (1.04) 2.910 (1.01) 18.56***
NEW PRODUCTS 0.511 (0.50) 0.351 (0.48) 72.18***
NEW PROCEDURES 0.225 (0.42) 0.105 (0.31) 72.07***
TECHNICAL STATE 2.172 (0.72) 2.257 (0.77) −25.30***
  1. Note: *** p<0.01