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Table 10 OLS estimates (log. of total expenditure)

From: Did tuition fees in Germany constrain students’ budgets? New evidence from a natural experiment

  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
DiD −0.032** −0.032** −0.031** −0.032** −0.032** −0.031** −0.035***
(0.013) (0.013) (0.013) (0.013) (0.013) (0.013) (0.013)
Treatment group 0.016* 0.016* 0.030*** 0.031*** 0.031*** 0.030*** 0.056***
(0.009) (0.009) (0.009) (0.009) (0.009) (0.009) (0.016)
Year 2009 0.029*** 0.029*** 0.021** 0.032*** 0.032*** 0.033*** 0.034***
(0.010) (0.010) (0.010) (0.009) (0.009) (0.009) (0.009)
Men   −0.009 −0.011* −0.049*** −0.049*** −0.050*** −0.049***
  (0.007) (0.007) (0.007) (0.007) (0.007) (0.007)
German citizenship   −0.046** −0.042** −0.029 −0.028 −0.043** −0.041**
  (0.021) (0.021) (0.020) (0.020) (0.020) (0.020)
Siblings   −0.021** −0.015 −0.022** −0.022** −0.022** −0.025***
  (0.010) (0.009) (0.009) (0.009) (0.009) (0.009)
Studying time (in semesters)   0.035*** 0.004 0.003 0.001 0.003
    (0.002) (0.003) (0.003) (0.003) (0.003)
Studying time (in semesters) squared −0.000*** −0.000 −0.000 −0.000 −0.000
    (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000)
Age     0.102*** 0.107*** 0.110*** 0.106***
    (0.016) (0.016) (0.016) (0.016)
Age squared     −0.001*** −0.001*** −0.001*** −0.001***
    (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000)
Apprenticeship before studying     −0.011 −0.003 −0.000
      (0.010) (0.010) (0.010)
Father’s position in the job (reference: low)      
 Medium       0.011 0.010
      (0.012) (0.012)
 High       0.034*** 0.030**
      (0.012) (0.012)
Mother’s position in the job (reference: low)      
 Medium       0.030*** 0.031***
      (0.011) (0.011)
 High       0.084*** 0.086***
      (0.012) (0.012)
Dummy variables for federal states      Yes
Constant 6.342*** 6.408*** 6.187*** 4.499*** 4.436*** 4.347*** 4.348***
(0.007) (0.023) (0.024) (0.196) (0.206) (0.206) (0.206)
R 2 adjusted 0.000 0.001 0.044 0.088 0.088 0.092 0.096
Number of observations 25,361 25,361 25,361 25,361 25,361 25,361 25,361
  1. Note: displayed coefficients were obtained from ordinary least squares estimations. The dependent variable is the logarithm of expenditure. Source: 18th and 19th Social Survey of the DZHW, own calculations