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Table 11 OLS estimates for the subsample of male students (log. of total expenditure 2006 and 2009)

From: Did tuition fees in Germany constrain students’ budgets? New evidence from a natural experiment

  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
DiD −0.010 −0.011 −0.016 −0.015 −0.014 −0.014 −0.018
(0.021) (0.021) (0.021) (0.020) (0.020) (0.020) (0.020)
Treatment group 0.021 0.023 0.037** 0.038*** 0.038*** 0.036** 0.038
(0.015) (0.015) (0.014) (0.014) (0.014) (0.014) (0.025)
Year 2009 0.023 0.023 0.016 0.027* 0.027* 0.027* 0.027*
(0.016) (0.016) (0.016) (0.015) (0.015) (0.015) (0.015)
German citizenship   −0.020 −0.017 −0.013 −0.012 −0.032 −0.029
  (0.032) (0.032) (0.031) (0.031) (0.031) (0.031)
Siblings   −0.043*** −0.034** −0.036** −0.036** −0.035** −0.037**
  (0.015) (0.015) (0.015) (0.015) (0.015) (0.015)
Studying time (in semesters)   0.036*** 0.011** 0.009* 0.008 0.008*
    (0.004) (0.005) (0.005) (0.005) (0.005)
Studying time (in semesters) squared −0.001*** −0.001** −0.001** −0.000** −0.000**
    (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000)
Age     0.059** 0.066** 0.068*** 0.066***
    (0.025) (0.026) (0.026) (0.026)
Age squared     −0.000 −0.000 −0.000 −0.000
    (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000)
Apprenticeship before studying     −0.018 −0.006 −0.004
      (0.015) (0.015) (0.015)
Father’s position in the job (reference: low)      
 Medium       0.016 0.016
      (0.019) (0.019)
 High       0.038* 0.034*
      (0.020) (0.020)
Mother’s position in the job (reference: low)      
 Medium       0.047*** 0.046***
      (0.017) (0.017)
 High       0.107*** 0.107***
      (0.020) (0.020)
Dummy variables for federal states      Yes
Constant 6.331*** 6.387*** 6.161*** 5.022*** 4.917*** 4.825*** 4.821***
(0.011) (0.036) (0.038) (0.313) (0.326) (0.326) (0.326)
R 2 adjusted 0.000 0.001 0.040 0.076 0.076 0.080 0.085
Number of observations 10,445 10,445 10,445 10,445 10,445 10,445 10,445
  1. Note: displayed coefficients were obtained from ordinary least squares estimations for the subsample of male students. The dependent variable is the logarithm of expenditure. * denotes statistical significance at the 10% level, ** at the 5% level and *** at the 1% level. Source: 18th and 19th Social Survey of the DZHW, own calculations