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Table 12 OLS estimates for the subsample of female students (log. of total expenditure 2006 and 2009)

From: Did tuition fees in Germany constrain students’ budgets? New evidence from a natural experiment

  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
DiD −0.047*** −0.047*** −0.042** −0.045*** −0.044*** −0.044*** −0.047***
(0.017) (0.017) (0.017) (0.016) (0.016) (0.016) (0.016)
Treatment group 0.012 0.012 0.025** 0.027** 0.027** 0.026** 0.072***
(0.012) (0.012) (0.011) (0.011) (0.011) (0.011) (0.020)
Year 2009 0.032** 0.032** 0.025** 0.036*** 0.036*** 0.037*** 0.039***
(0.013) (0.013) (0.012) (0.012) (0.012) (0.012) (0.012)
German citizenship   −0.064** −0.061** −0.040 −0.039 −0.050* −0.048*
  (0.028) (0.027) (0.026) (0.026) (0.027) (0.027)
Siblings   −0.006 −0.003 −0.013 −0.013 −0.014 −0.018
  (0.012) (0.012) (0.012) (0.012) (0.012) (0.012)
Studying time (in semesters)   0.033*** −0.001 −0.001 −0.002 −0.001
    (0.003) (0.004) (0.004) (0.004) (0.004)
Studying time (in semesters) squared −0.000* −0.000 −0.000 −0.000 −0.000
    (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000)
Age     0.124*** 0.126*** 0.131*** 0.125***
    (0.021) (0.022) (0.022) (0.022)
Age squared     −0.001*** −0.001*** −0.001*** −0.001***
    (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000)
Apprenticeship before studying     −0.004 0.001 0.005
      (0.014) (0.014) (0.014)
Father’s position in the job (reference: low)      
 Medium       0.006 0.006
      (0.015) (0.015)
 High       0.031* 0.027*
      (0.016) (0.016)
Mother’s position in the job (reference: low)      
 Medium       0.015 0.017
      (0.014) (0.014)
 High       0.065*** 0.070***
      (0.016) (0.016)
Dummy variables for federal states      Yes
Constant 6.350*** 6.417*** 6.200*** 4.213*** 4.189*** 4.090*** 4.101***
(0.009) (0.031) (0.032) (0.256) (0.270) (0.271) (0.271)
R 2 adjusted 0.00 0.001 0.047 0.098 0.098 0.101 0.105
Number of observations 14,916 14,916 14,916 14,916 14,916 14,916 14,916
  1. Note: displayed coefficients were obtained from ordinary least squares estimations for the subsample of male students. The dependent variable is the logarithm of expenditure. * denotes statistical significance at the 10% level, ** at the 5% level and *** at the 1% level. Source: 18th and 19th Social Survey of the DZHW, own calculations