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Table 2 Means of selected variables (by year and groups)

From: Did tuition fees in Germany constrain students’ budgets? New evidence from a natural experiment

  2006 2009
  Means P value of the ttest/chi-squared independence test Means P value of the ttest/chi-squared independence test
  Control group Treatment group Control group Treatment group
Outcome variables
 Expenditure (in EUR) 631.53 646.17 0.003 645.82 650.43 0.369
 Expenditure for the rent 218.29 223.85 0.030 236.02 229.38 0.013
 Expenditure for food 133.06 136.45 0.022 144.50 142.64 0.223
 Expenditure for clothes 47.09 50.99 0.000 47.36 52.16 0.000
 Expenditure for learning materials 33.23 33.95 0.219 30.75 32.46 0.003
 Expenditure for a car 57.48 55.49 0.194 42.67 46.12 0.016
 Expenditure for public transport 19.94 22.03 0.000 23.38 24.19 0.212
 Expenditure for medical insurance, medical fees 32.25 28.85 0.000 36.73 35.66 0.254
 Fees for telephone, internet 38.10 37.32 0.118 30.53 29.82 0.107
 Expenditure for leisure, culture, and sports 52.11 57.24 0.000 53.88 58.02 0.000
 Weekly working hours 6.53 6.36 0.303 7.68 7.58 0.551
 Financial support by parents or a partner 0.884 0.898 0.008 0.865 0.91 0.000
 Financial support by parents 0.77 0.80 0.000 0.75 0.79 0.000
 Taking out a loan or special credit for paying tuition fees 0.02 0.02 0.973 0.03 0.11 0.000
Control variables
 Male 0.41 0.41 0.751 0.41 0.42 0.111
 Foreign citizenship 0.98 0.97 0.001 0.98 0.97 0.200
 Having siblings 0.85 0.87 0.000 0.85 0.86 0.183
 Number of semesters in university 6.93 6.41 0.000 7.21 6.68 0.000
 Age (in years) 23.91 23.63 0.000 23.87 23.58 0.000
 Apprenticeship before studying 0.24 0.22 0.002 0.19 0.19 0.821
 Father’s position in the job       
  Not employed 0.00 0.00 0.000 0.00 0.00 0.000
  Low (reference) 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
  Medium 0.52 0.46 0.52 0.48
  High 0.39 0.46 0.39 0.44
 Mother’s position in the job       
  Not employed 0.02 0.03 0.000 0.02 0.02 0.041
  Low (reference) 0.07 0.09 0.08 0.09
  Medium 0.68 0.65 0.67 0.67
  High 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.22
Subgroup categories
 Father university degree 0.44 0.44 0.685 0.44 0.45 0.230
 Mother university degree 0.34 0.29 0.000 0.36 0.30 0.000
Additional variables
 Income (incl. payments of parents or a partner to third parties) (in EUR) 723.22 743.53 0.000 766.08 780.05 0.020
 Living at the parents’ house 0.21 0.23 0.000 0.19 0.26 0.000
 Living alone 0.18 0.16 0.21 0.15
 Living in a shared flat 0.49 0.45 0.52 0.43
 Living in a student dormitory 0.11 0.12 0.12 0.13
 Number of observations 5,755 7,618   5,494 6,494  
  1. Note: means and p values of the t test for outcome and selected control variables are shown according to year and treatment group. Expenditure and income are measured in Euro, working hours in hours, and age in years. Remaining variables are dummy variables. A p value ≤0.001 indicates that the means between treatment and control group differ significantly to the 1 % level. Results of chi-squared-tests indicate that the distribution of treatment group and father’s position in the job is independent neither in 2006 nor in 2009 (error probability 1 %). Source: 18th and 19th Social Survey of the DZHW, own calculations