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Table 3 Difference-in-differences estimates (log. of total expenditure, 2006 and 2009)

From: Did tuition fees in Germany constrain students’ budgets? New evidence from a natural experiment

   (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
Pooled Coeff. −0.032** −0.032** −0.031** −0.032** −0.032** −0.031** −0.035***
S.E. (0.013) (0.013) (0.013) (0.013) (0.013) (0.013) (0.013)
No. of obs. 25,361 25,361 25,361 25,361 25,361 25,361 25,361
Men Coeff. −0.010 −0.011 −0.016 −0.015 −0.014 −0.014 −0.018
S.E. (0.021) (0.021) (0.021) (0.020) (0.020) (0.020) (0.020)
No. of obs. 10,445 10,445 10,445 10,445 10,445 10,445 10,445
Women Coeff. −0.047*** −0.047*** −0.042** −0.045*** −0.044*** −0.044*** −0.047***
S.E. (0.017) (0.017) (0.017) (0.016) (0.016) (0.016) (0.016)
No. of obs. 14,916 14,916 14,916 14,916 14,916 14,916 14,916
Treatment group
Year 2009  
Men   
Citizenship   
Siblings   
Studying time (in semesters)  
Studying time (in semesters) squared  
Age     
Age squared     
Apprenticeship before studying    
Father’s position in the job     
Mother’s position in the job     
Dummy variables for federal states      
  1. Note: difference-in-differences estimates are displayed (obtained from ordinary least square estimations with the logarithm of expenditure as dependent variable). * denotes statistical significance at the 10% level, ** at the 5% level and *** at the 1% level. Source: 18th and 19th Social Survey of the DZHW, own calculations