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Table 4 Difference-in-differences estimates (log. of different types of expenditure, 2006 and 2009)

From: Did tuition fees in Germany constrain students’ budgets? New evidence from a natural experiment

Expenditure for   Pooled Men Women
   Raw With covariates Raw With covariates Raw With covariates
Total Coeff. −0.032** −0.035*** −0.010 −0.018 −0.047*** −0.047***
S.E. (0.013) (0.013) (0.021) (0.020) (0.017) (0.016)
Rent Coeff. −0.384*** −0.382*** −0.323*** −0.327*** −0.423*** −0.418***
S.E. (0.042) (0.041) (0.069) (0.069) (0.051) (0.051)
Food Coeff. −0.069** −0.068** −0.046 −0.052 −0.087** −0.080**
S.E. (0.030) (0.029) (0.047) (0.047) (0.038) (0.037)
Clothes Coeff. 0.058* 0.051* 0.086* 0.077 0.044 0.036
S.E. (0.031) (0.031) (0.051) (0.051) (0.037) (0.038)
Learning materials Coeff. −0.024 −0.032 −0.005 −0.012 −0.034 −0.046
S.E. (0.029) (0.029) (0.048) (0.048) (0.036) (0.036)
Car Coeff. 0.154*** 0.119** 0.157* 0.101 0.145** 0.127*
S.E. (0.058) (0.057) (0.093) (0.091) (0.073) (0.072)
Public transport Coeff. −0.078* −0.031 0.072 0.130* −0.181*** −0.146***
S.E. (0.043) (0.043) (0.067) (0.067) (0.056) (0.055)
Medical insurance, medical fees Coeff. 0.091* 0.081* 0.157** 0.118* 0.049 0.049
S.E. (0.049) (0.044) (0.078) (0.070) (0.061) (0.056)
Fees for telephone, internet Coeff. −0.030 −0.049 0.032 0.001 −0.072* −0.082**
S.E. (0.032) (0.031) (0.052) (0.052) (0.040) (0.039)
Leisure, culture, sports Coeff. −0.058 −0.074** 0.035 0.015 −0.124*** −0.135***
S.E. (0.036) (0.036) (0.060) (0.061) (0.045) (0.045)
No. of observations   25,361 25,361 10,445 10,445 14,916 14,916
  1. Note: difference-in-differences estimates are displayed (obtained from ordinary least square estimations with the logarithm of different expenditure as dependent variable). Next to the difference-in-differences estimate, the model includes a dummy variable for the treatment group and a dummy variable for 2009 (after the reform) as well as controls for socio-demographic background variables (gender, citizenship, indicator for having siblings, age, age squared), studying time (in semesters), studying time squared, a dummy variable that indicates whether the student has completed an apprenticeship before studying, dummy variables for the parents’ position in their job, and dummy variables for federal states. * denotes statistical significance at the 10% level, ** at the 5% level and *** at the 1% level. See text for further details. Source: 18th and 19th Social Survey of the DZHW, own calculations