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Table 5 Difference-in-differences estimates for different subgroups (log. of total expenditure, 2006 and 2009)

From: Did tuition fees in Germany constrain students’ budgets? New evidence from a natural experiment

Sample   Pooled Men Women
   Raw With covariates Raw With covariates Raw With covariates
Total Coeff. −0.032** −0.035*** −0.010 −0.018 −0.047*** −0.047***
S.E. (0.013) (0.013) (0.021) (0.020) (0.017) (0.016)
No. of obs. 25,361 25,361 10,445 10,445 14,916 14,916
Parents have no tertiary education Coeff. −0.021 −0.025 0.029 0.019 −0.056** −0.057**
S.E. (0.020) (0.019) (0.031) (0.029) (0.025) (0.024)
No. of obs. 12,230 12,230 5095 5095 7135 7135
Parents have tertiary education Coeff. −0.041** −0.042** −0.042 −0.048* −0.041* −0.040*
S.E. (0.018) (0.017) (0.029) (0.028) (0.023) (0.022)
No. of obs. 13,051 13,051 5317 5317 7734 7734
Parents with low position in the job Coeff. −0.091** −0.095** −0.056 −0.069 −0.121** −0.118**
S.E. (0.040) (0.039) (0.064) (0.063) (0.052) (0.049)
No. of obs. 2797 2797 1180 1180 1617 1617
Parents with high position in the job Coeff. −0.045** −0.049*** −0.035 −0.046 −0.053** −0.054**
S.E. (0.019) (0.018) (0.030) (0.029) (0.025) (0.024)
No. of obs. 12,815 12,815 5,300 5,300 7,515 7,515
  1. Note:Difference-in-differences estimates are displayed obtained from ordinary least squares estimations. The dependent variable is the logarithm of expenditure. Specification 1 includes only the difference-in-differences estimate, a dummy variable for the treatment group, and a dummy variable for 2009 (after the reform). Specification 2 controls for socio-demographic background variables (gender, citizenship, indicator for having siblings, age, age squared), studying time (in semesters), studying time squared, a dummy variable that indicates whether the student has completed an apprenticeship before studying, dummy variables for the parents’ position in their job, and dummy variables for federal states. Effects are calculated for different subgroups. * denotes statistical significance at the 10% level, ** at the 5% level and *** at the 1% level. See text for further details. Source: 18th and 19th Social Survey of the DZHW, own calculations