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Table 6 Difference-in-differences estimates (further outcomes, 2006 and 2009)

From: Did tuition fees in Germany constrain students’ budgets? New evidence from a natural experiment

   Pooled Men Women
   Raw With covariates Raw With covariates Raw With covariates
Weekly working hours Coeff. 0.078 −0.032 −0.181 −0.289 0.270 0.171
S.E. (0.239) (0.228) (0.390) (0.371) (0.300) (0.288)
No. of obs. 25,174 25,174 10,400 10,400 14,774 14,774
Financial support from parents or a partner Coeff. 0.032*** 0.033*** 0.038*** 0.037*** 0.028*** 0.029***
S.E. (0.008) (0.008) (0.013) (0.012) (0.010) (0.010)
No. of obs. 25,696 25,696 10,620 10,620 15,076 15,076
Financial resources from parents (log) Coeff. 0.003 0.000 0.023 −0.012 −0.008 −0.000
S.E. (0.060) (0.055) (0.094) (0.086) (0.077) (0.071)
No. of obs. 25,413 25,413 10,493 10,493 14,920 14,920
Taking out a loan (incl. loan for tuition fees) Coeff. 0.080*** 0.079*** 0.083*** 0.081*** 0.078*** 0.078***
S.E. (0.005) (0.005) (0.009) (0.009) (0.007) (0.007)
No. of obs. 25,418 25,418 10,495 10,495 14,923 14,923
  1. Note: difference-in-differences estimates are displayed obtained from ordinary least squares estimations for the following outcome variables: weekly working hours, receiving financial support from the parents or a partner (yes/no, support in cash, payments to third parties and contribution to paying tuition fees), logarithm of financial resources from the parents (in cash), taking out a loan (incl. special loan for tuition fees, yes/no). Specification 1 includes only the difference-in-differences estimate, a dummy variable for the treatment group, and a dummy variable for 2009 (after the reform). Specification 2 controls for socio-demographic background variables (gender, citizenship, indicator for having siblings, age, age squared), studying time (in semesters), studying time squared, a dummy variable that indicates whether the student has completed an apprenticeship before studying, dummy variables for the parents’ position in their job, and dummy variables for federal states. * denotes statistical significance at the 10% level, ** at the 5% level and *** at the 1% level. See text for further details. Source: 18th and 19th Social Survey of the DZHW, own calculations