Skip to main content

Table 7 Difference-in-differences estimates (log. of total expenditure, 2003 and 2009 and 2003 and 2006)

From: Did tuition fees in Germany constrain students’ budgets? New evidence from a natural experiment

   2003 and 2009 2003 and 2006
   (1) (2) (3) (1) (2) (3)
Pooled Coeff. −0.041*** −0.041*** −0.031** −0.004 −0.005 0.002
S.E. (0.013) (0.013) (0.013) (0.012) (0.012) (0.012)
No. of obs. 29,847 29,847 29,847 31,818 31,818 31,818
Men Coeff. −0.003 −0.003 0.002 0.014 0.013 0.018
S.E. (0.020) (0.020) (0.019) (0.019) (0.019) (0.018)
No. of obs. 13,014 13,014 13,014 13,725 13,725 13,725
Women Coeff. −0.068*** −0.068*** −0.054*** −0.017 −0.018 −0.010
S.E. (0.017) (0.017) (0.017) (0.016) (0.016) (0.016)
No. of obs. 16,833 16,833 16,833 18,093 18,093 18,093
Treatment group  
Year 2009  
Men     
Citizenship     
Studying time (in semesters)      
Studying time (in semesters) squared     
  1. Note: difference-in-differences estimates are displayed obtained from ordinary least squares estimations. The dependent variable is the logarithm of expenditure. Specification 1 includes only the difference-in-differences estimate, a dummy variable for the treatment group, and a dummy variable for 2009 (after the reform) or 2006 (placebo for after the reform). Specification 2 controls for socio-demographic background variables (gender, citizenship), studying time (in semesters), and studying time squared. * denotes statistical significance at the 10% level, ** at the 5% level and *** at the 1% level. See text for further details. Source: 17th, 18th, and 19th Social Survey of the DZHW, own calculations