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Table 1 Sum stats of time devoted to time-use categories, by self-reported health status, males

From: Health inequality and the uses of time for workers in Europe: policy implications

   (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
Males   Sleep Personal care Market work Non-market work Leisure
France (N = 3,922) Poor health 9.294 2.489 5.154 1.683 5.380
  Fair health 8.573 2.429 6.210 1.658 5.131
  Good health 8.359 2.279 6.492 1.670 5.199
  Very good health 8.304 2.212 6.613 1.594 5.277
  Diff very good health-poor health −0.990 −0.277 1.459 −0.089 −0.103
  P value difference (<0.01) (0.05) (0.01) (0.70) (0.81)
Germany (N = 8,920) Poor health 7.955 2.492 5.338 2.380 5.833
  Fair health 7.905 2.537 5.791 2.679 5.085
  Good health 7.845 2.483 6.098 2.463 5.106
  Very good health 7.760 2.479 6.382 2.304 5.069
  Diff very good health-poor health −0.194 −0.013 1.044 −0.076 −0.764
  P value difference (0.12) (0.88) (<0.01) (0.65) (<0.01)
Italy (N = 12,100) Poor health 8.563 3.008 4.930 1.827 5.660
  Fair health 7.966 2.737 6.939 1.561 4.790
  Good health 7.945 2.737 7.072 1.461 4.781
  Very good health 7.876 2.700 6.950 1.275 5.193
  Diff very good health-poor health −0.688 −0.308 2.020 −0.552 −0.467
  P value difference (<0.01) (<0.01) (<0.01) (<0.01) (0.09)
The Netherlands (N = 6,305) Poor health 8.932 1.490 1.106 5.063 7.409
  Fair health 8.323 2.034 5.181 2.607 5.854
  Good health 8.036 1.865 6.697 2.190 5.213
  Very good health 7.960 1.783 6.797 2.057 5.402
  Diff very good health-poor health −0.972 0.294 5.691 −3.006 −2.007
  P value difference (0.01) (0.20) (<0.01) (<0.01) (0.01)
Spain (N = 11,467) Poor health 8.825 2.655 5.551 1.884 5.085
  Fair health 8.338 2.502 6.765 1.640 4.755
  Good health 8.237 2.420 7.063 1.604 4.676
  Very good health 8.136 2.445 7.179 1.500 4.739
  Diff very good health-poor health −0.688 −0.209 1.628 −0.384 −0.347
  P value difference (<0.01) (<0.01) (<0.01) (<0.01) (0.07)
UK (N = 5,329) Poor health 8.231 1.639 4.685 2.811 6.616
  Fair health 8.029 1.575 6.103 2.343 5.906
  Good health 8.020 1.637 6.501 2.297 5.484
  Very good health 8.075 1.600 6.661 2.277 5.331
  Diff very good health-poor health −0.156 −0.039 1.976 −0.534 −1.285
  P value difference (0.47) (0.71) (<0.01) (0.07) (<0.01)
  1. Notes: Standard deviations in parenthesis. The sample is restricted to include part- and full-time male workers between the ages of 21 and 65 (inclusive) included in the Multinational Time Use Study (MTUS) from France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, and the UK. Time-use activities are measured in hours per day; see Additional file 1: Table S2 for definitions of time-use categories. Diff very good health-poor health indicates the difference in the time devoted to the reference time-use activity between individuals reporting ‘very good health’ and individuals reporting ‘poor health’; P value of such difference in parentheses