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Table 2 Sum stats of time devoted to time use categories, by self-reported health status, females

From: Health inequality and the uses of time for workers in Europe: policy implications

   (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
Females   Sleep Personal care Market work Non-market work Leisure
France (N = 3,362) Poor health 9.371 2.827 2.653 4.512 4.637
  Fair health 8.820 2.466 4.926 3.872 3.916
  Good health 8.601 2.382 5.150 3.831 4.035
  Very good health 8.493 2.308 5.235 3.790 4.175
  Diff very good health-poor health −0.878 −0.519 2.582 −0.722 −0.462
  P value difference (<0.01) (<0.01) (<0.01) (0.06) (0.26)
Germany (N = 8,701) Poor health 8.149 2.816 3.204 4.571 5.259
  Fair health 8.151 2.759 3.829 4.353 4.903
  Good health 8.051 2.654 3.974 4.293 5.023
  Very good health 7.953 2.617 4.218 4.161 5.044
  Diff very good health-poor health −0.196 −0.200 1.014 −0.410 −0.214
  P value difference (0.07) (0.01) (<0.01) (0.02) (0.23)
Italy (N = 8,110) Poor health 8.620 2.519 4.082 4.878 3.880
  Fair health 7.979 2.570 5.171 4.738 3.537
  Good health 7.979 2.660 5.270 4.254 3.831
  Very good health 7.944 2.758 5.035 3.816 4.439
  Diff very good health-poor health −0.676 0.239 0.953 −1.063 0.559
  P value difference (<0.01) (0.02) (0.02) (<0.01) (0.04)
The Netherlands (N = 6,737) Poor health 9.582 1.957 2.083 4.514 5.864
  Fair health 8.864 2.293 3.253 4.326 5.262
  Good health 8.387 2.099 4.101 4.106 5.306
  Very good health 8.316 2.008 4.593 3.764 5.319
  Diff very good health-poor health −1.266 0.051 2.510 −0.750 −0.545
  P value difference (<0.01) (0.74) (<0.01) (0.08) (0.22)
Spain (N = 7,927) Poor health 8.676 2.436 3.909 4.741 4.239
  Fair health 8.181 2.429 5.252 4.280 3.856
  Good health 8.117 2.379 5.717 3.891 3.896
  Very good health 8.150 2.439 5.656 3.616 4.139
  Diff very good health-poor health −0.526 0.003 1.747 −1.125 −0.100
  P value difference (<0.01) (0.96) (<0.01) (<0.01) (0.59)
UK (N = 5,326) Poor health 8.434 2.103 2.638 4.711 6.062
  Fair health 8.503 1.823 4.262 4.055 5.270
  Good health 8.349 1.805 4.596 4.030 5.156
  Very good health 8.226 1.828 4.757 4.039 5.090
  Diff very good health-poor health −0.207 −0.275 2.119 −0.671 −0.972
  P value difference (0.23) (<0.01) (<0.01) (0.02) (<0.01)
  1. Notes: Standard deviations in parenthesis. The sample is restricted to include part- and full-time female workers between the ages of 21 and 65 (inclusive) included in the Multinational Time Use Study (MTUS) from France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, and the UK. Time-use activities are measured in hours per day; see Additional file 1: Table S2 for definitions of time-use categories. Diff very good health-poor health indicates the difference in the time devoted to the reference time use activity between individuals reporting ‘very good health’ and individuals reporting ‘poor health’; P value of such difference in parentheses