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Table 4 Probit model employment determinants. Estimated marginal effects in % points, by country and sex (1997–2006)

From: Old-age employment and hours of work trends: empirical analysis for four European countries

Variable Belgium France The Netherlands
Women Men Women Men Women Men
Period 1997–2001
 Intercept (α 1) 89.0*** 91.9*** 83.9*** 88.1*** 92.1*** 94.5***
 Age (ref: 25–49)
  50–54 (β 2,1) −13.7*** −14.3*** −0.4* −7.9*** −9.2*** −13.3***
  55–59 (β 3,1) −34.7*** −45.7*** −19.6*** −41.5*** −25.1*** −39.9***
  60–64 (β 4,1) −65.5*** −72.5*** −59.5*** −78.6*** −58.3*** −74.7***
 Education (ref: high)
  Medium (γ 2,1) −15.7*** −10.6*** −10.0*** −5.7*** −10.4*** −6.3***
  Low (γ 2,1) −35.8*** −27.8*** −22.3*** −17.0*** −28.3*** −18.4***
 Country of birth (ref: country)
  Abroad (δ 2,1) −14.9*** −18.2*** −11.0*** −8.4*** −12.6*** −25.4***
 Marital status (ref. unmarried)
  Married (η 2,1) −4.3*** 10.2*** −1.6*** 10.5*** −12.9*** 8.4***
  Widow (η 3,1) −2.9*** 3.1*** 2.6*** 4.0*** −13.0*** −0.5
Period (ref: 1997–2001)
 2002–2006 \( \left({\tilde{\alpha}}_2\right) \) −0.5 −0.5 0.9*** 1.7*** 0.2 0.7
Crossed effects (2002–2006)
 Age (ref: 25–49)
  50–54 \( \left({\tilde{\beta}}_{2,2}\right) \) 5.0*** 4.3*** 1.2*** 1.7*** 2.9*** 3.3***
  55–59 \( \left({\tilde{\beta}}_{3,2}\right) \) 3.3*** 7.3*** 3.6*** 4.3*** 2.6*** 9.5***
  60–64 \( \left({\tilde{\beta}}_{4,2}\right) \) 3.3*** 3.3*** 0.5 2.8*** 2.2*** 3.5***
 Education (ref: high)
  Medium \( \left({\tilde{\gamma}}_{2,2}\right) \) 1.4** 0.5 1.2*** −0.8** 0.6 0.3
  Low \( \left({\tilde{\gamma}}_{3,2}\right) \) 2.0** 1.0 1.0** −0.7 1.7*** 4.2***
 Country of birth (ref: country)
  Abroad \( \left({\tilde{\delta}}_{2,2}\right) \) −0.9 2.2** −0.3 1.4*** −1.4** 5.7***
 Marital status (ref. single)
  Married \( \left({\tilde{\eta}}_{2,2}\right) \) 2.4*** −1.0*** 0.5* −1.2*** 6.5*** −0.5**
  Widow \( \left({\tilde{\eta}}_{3,2}\right) \) 3.0*** 1.1 −0.6** −0.1 8.2*** 0.7
 Sample size
  # obs. (×1000) 151.7 146.4 511.4 480.1 375.6 365.2
  1. Notes: in italic, estimated employment probability in % points for the reference category
  2. ***, **, *Statistically significant coefficients at 1, 5, and 10 % thresholds (χ 2 test), respectively (robust estimation)