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Table 6 Heckman model. Estimated marginal effects in hours, by country and sex (1997–2006)

From: Old-age employment and hours of work trends: empirical analysis for four European countries

Variable Belgium France The Netherlands
Women Men Women Men Women Men
Period 1997–2001
 Intercept (α 1) 32.7*** 41.4*** 33.2*** 41.6*** 29.6*** 38.3***
 Age (ref: 25–49)
  50–54 (β 2,1) −0.58** 0.31* −0.84*** 0.79*** 0.10 −1.00***
  55–59 (β 3,1) 0.04 1.97*** −2.41*** 0.79*** 0.63*** −2.17***
  60–64 (β 4,1) −0.30 3.70*** −2.86*** 3.90*** 2.19*** −3.73***
 Education (ref: high)
  Medium (γ 2,1) 0.57*** −0.13 0.23*** −0.17** −1.79*** 1.22***
  Low (γ 2,1) −0.77*** −0.69*** −1.30*** −1.24*** −2.68*** 0.89***
 Country of birth (ref: country)
  Abroad (δ 2,1) 1.34*** 0.25 −0.85*** −0.63*** 3.72*** −0.90***
 Others
  Seniority (τ 1) 0.06*** −0.01 0.16*** 0.01*** 0.05*** 0.12***
Period (ref: 1997–2001)
 2002–2006 \( \left({\tilde{\alpha}}_2\right) \) 0.77*** 0.15 1.36*** 1.31*** 0.00 0.06
Crossed effects (2002–2006)
 Age (ref: 25–49)
  50–54 \( \left({\tilde{\beta}}_{2,2}\right) \) −1.11*** −0.92*** 0.96*** 0.53*** 0.15 −0.25**
  55–59 \( \left({\tilde{\beta}}_{3,2}\right) \) −1.65*** −2.20*** 1.57*** 1.69*** 0.48** −0.26*
  60–64 \( \left({\tilde{\beta}}_{4,2}\right) \) −0.35 −3.05*** 1.82*** 0.77** 2.18*** −0.13
 Education (ref: high)
  Medium \( \left({\tilde{\gamma}}_{2,2}\right) \) −1.85*** −0.82*** −1.61*** −1.34*** −0.47*** 0.08
  Low \( \left({\tilde{\gamma}}_{3,2}\right) \) −2.60*** −1.24*** −1.54*** −1.87*** 0.76*** 0.21**
 Country of birth (ref: country)
  Abroad \( \left({\tilde{\delta}}_{2,2}\right) \) −0.62** −0.58*** 0.08 −0.08 0.07 0.18
 Others
  Seniority \( \left({\tilde{\tau}}_2\right) \) 0.00 0.05*** −0.05*** −0.01*** −0.03*** −0.03***
  Mills ratio −0.66*** −1.08*** −0.61*** −1.83*** −4.41*** −0.52***
 Sample size
  # obs. (×1000) 78.1 97.1 301.1 333.6 337.6 352.1
  1. ***, **, *Statistically significant at 1, 5, and 10 % thresholds (χ 2 test), respectively (robust estimation)