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Table 7 Heckman model. Estimated marginal effects in hours, by country and sex (2002–2011)

From: Old-age employment and hours of work trends: empirical analysis for four European countries

Variable Belgium France Germany The Netherlands
Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men
Period 2002–2006 (direct effects)
 Intercept (α 2) 33.5*** 41.6*** 34.5*** 42.9*** 34.1*** 42.4*** 29.5*** 38.3***
 Age (ref: 25–49)
  50–54 (β 2,2) −1.68*** −0.61*** 0.13 1.31*** −0.50*** 0.29*** 0.13* −1.25***
  55–59 (β 3,2) −1.57*** −0.20 −0.93*** 2.47*** 0.18* 0.18*** 0.73*** −2.41***
  60–64 (β 4,2) −0.56 0.72** −1.39*** 4.63*** 1.99*** −0.54*** 3.31*** −3.81***
 Education (ref: high)
  Medium (γ 2,2) −1.26*** −0.94*** −1.42*** −1.51*** −2.60*** −2.27*** −2.42*** 1.30***
  Low (γ 3,2) −3.33*** −1.91*** −2.94*** −3.11*** −2.88*** −2.48*** −2.36*** 1.12***
 Country of birth (ref: country)
  Abroad (δ 2,2) 0.74*** −0.31** −0.83*** −0.71*** 0.81*** −0.74*** 3.56*** −0.71***
 Others
  Seniority (τ 2) 0.06*** 0.04*** 0.11*** −0.00 0.21*** 0.05*** 0.02*** 0.08***
Period (ref: 2002–2006)
 2007–2011 \( \left({\tilde{\alpha}}_3\right) \) 0.75*** −0.04 0.80*** 0.24*** 0.00 0.09 0.10 −0.23***
Crossed effects (2007–2011)
 Age (ref: 25–49)
  50–54 \( \left({\tilde{\beta}}_{2,3}\right) \) −0.21 −0.01 −0.71*** −0.49*** −0.46** −0.54*** −0.67*** 0.08
  55–59 \( \left({\tilde{\beta}}_{3,3}\right) \) −0.77*** −0.89*** −0.51*** −1.23*** −0.74*** −1.08*** −1.21*** −0.33***
  60–64 \( \left({\tilde{\beta}}_{4,3}\right) \) −1.24** −0.30 −1.21*** −2.46*** −0.71** 1.19*** −3.13*** −1.54***
 Education (ref: high)
  Medium \( \left({\tilde{\gamma}}_{2,3}\right) \) −0.89*** −0.27** −0.60*** −0.38*** −1.05*** −0.37*** −0.64*** −0.23***
  Low \( \left({\tilde{\gamma}}_{3,3}\right) \) −0.89*** −0.12 −0.93*** −0.35*** −0.76*** −1.13*** −1.01*** −0.05
 Country of birth (ref: country)
  Abroad \( \left({\tilde{\delta}}_{2,3}\right) \) −0.16 0.18 −0.11 −0.09 −0.65*** −0.20 0.05 0.06
 Others
  Seniority \( \left({\tilde{\tau}}_3\right) \) −0.00 0.02 0.02*** 0.04*** 0.01 0.04*** 0.02*** 0.03***
  Mills ratio −0.73*** −1.14*** −0.31*** −1.81*** −8.15*** −1.39*** −3.46*** −0.58***
 Sample size
  # obs. (×1000) 131.7 145.0 538.0 581.9 296.4 355.4 249.1 330.1
  1. ***, **, *Statistically significant at 1, 5, and 10 % thresholds (χ 2 test), respectively (robust estimation)