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Table 2 Global migrant stock estimates by origin country income group and portability regime, 2000

From: Do bilateral social security agreements deliver on the portability of pensions and health care benefits? A summary policy paper on four migration corridors between EU and non-EU member states

Origin country income group Regime I (portability) Regime IIa (exportability) Regime IIIb (no access) Regime IVc (informal) Total
Low-income countries (number) 850,985 36,720,832 5,293,338 10,757,086 53,622,241
% of total 2 68 10 20 100
Lower-middle-income countries (number) 11,312,511 47,224,671 3,476,163 14,473,805 76,487,150
% of total 15 62 5 19 100
Upper-middle-income countries (number) 3,521,212 10,724,671 189,357 7,203,975 21,639,215
% of total 16 50 1 33 100
Non-Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) high-income countries (number) 2,063,914 3,534,415 192,987 57,809 5,849,125
% of total 35 60 3 1 100
OECD high-income countries (number) 24,778,310 3,658,850 291,007 189,802 28,917,969
% of total 86 13 1 1 100
Total (number) 42,526,932 101,863,439 9,442,852 32,682,476 186,515,699
  1. Source: Holzmann and Koettl 2015, based on Avato et al. 2010 and Holzmann et al. 2005
  2. aLegal migrants with access to social security in the host country in the absence of a bilateral or multilateral arrangement
  3. bLegal migrants without access to social security in their host country
  4. cUndocumented immigrants