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Table 2 Correlation coefficients between cyclical components of male and female participation rates, male and female discouraged workers rates, GDP and unemployment rate computed on the basis of the HP filter estimates

From: The impact of easy and early access to old-age benefits on exits from the labour market: a macro-micro analysis

Variable Hodrick-Prescott filter
GDP Unemployment rate
Male participation rate 45–64 −0.079 0.048
Male participation rate 45+ 0.190 0.031
Female participation rate 45–59 −0.364c 0.545c
Female participation rate 45+ −0.207 0.491c
Male discouraged worker rate 45–64 −0.305b 0.251a
Male discouraged worker rate 45+ −0.327b 0.270b
Female discouraged worker rate 45–59 −0.122 0.091
Female discouraged worker rate 45+ −0.174 0.134
  1. aSignificant at the 10% level; bsignificant at the 5% level; csignificant at the 1% level
  2. Source: authors’ calculations; data sources: LFS and Central Statistical Office Poland